King John and Henry III

The North under King John and Henry III 1199-1272

Tensions between the Scots and the English were high during the reigns of King John and King Henry III and there were many disagreements over the exact course of the Scottish border. Meanwhile Newcastle’s importance as a town and port was increasing and important new defences were added in 1247 and 1265.

St Nicholas Cathedral and Blackgate Newcastle
The Blackgate at Newcastle was built during the reign of Henry III : Photo © 2015 David

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Apr 6 1199 – KING JOHN

Prince John, the son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine and the brother of the late Richard I, becomes King of England. He will be crowned on May 27 at Westminster Abbey.

1199 – Pilgrim’s Street

Pilgrim Street  – ‘Via Perogronium’ is among the Newcastle’s streets. It is the site of inns and places of hospitality used by travellers and pilgrims.

1199 – Morpeth market

King John grants Morpeth a market.

Plaque commemorating the Brancepeth Brawn at Ferryhill © David Simpson 2018

Circa 1200 – Ferry kills last wild boar

According to the Victorian Durham historian, Robert Surtees, Roger De Ferry killed the last of Durham’s wild boars in this year. The site of the slaying of the ‘brawn of Brancepeth‘ (boars were known as brawns is marked by Cleve’s Cross at Ferryhill. It is possible, however, that Surtees created the legend himself.

Nov 22, 1200 – Scots claim the North

William of Scotland claims Northumberland as his own in a meeting with King John at Lincoln.

Sea wall, Old Hartlepool
Sea wall, Old Hartlepool. Photo © David Simpson 2018

1201 – Hartlepool becomes a burgh

King John grants Hartlepool ‘Royal  Burgh’ status giving its merchants the same rights as Newcastle. Normally, in Durham burgh or borough status could only be confirmed by a charter of the bishop. The Bishop of Durham claims Hartlepool should be a ‘bishop’s burgh’. Hartlepool’s political status at this time is ambiguous because the district of ‘Hartness’, as part of the Wapentake of Sadberge had only recently been acquired by the Prince Bishops of Durham in 1189. It might still be regarded as independent of the bishop’s political territory.

1203 Two kings meet

King John held a conference at Norham-on-Tweed with King William of Scotland to ensure peace, but tensions continue to mount.

1207 – Yarm fair and market

Peter De Brus grants a fair and market to Yarm.

Norham Castle
Norham Castle Photo © David Simpson 2018

1209 – Scots king submits to John

King John marched to Norham to prepare for an invasion of Scotland but William has submitted to him.

1210 – Allegiance from Alexander

Alexander, son of William of Scotland and  a future Scottish king, gives his allegiance to King John at Alnwick.

Corbridge bridge
The bridge across the Tyne at Corbridge dates from 1674. Photo © David Simpson 2018

1212 – John seeks Corbridge treasure

King John visits Corbridge in the hope of finding Roman treasure which is said to be buried there. It follows similar searches in 1202 and 1208 but he finds nothing. Meanwhile John confirms certain privileges held by the leading merchants at Newcastle. J ohn also strengthens Newcastle castle.

1214 Alexander is new king in Scotland

Alexander II becomes the new king of Scotland.

June 15, 1215 – Magna Carta

The Magna Carta is signed at Runnymede near Windsor in the Thames valley by King John in the presence of the barons. It reduces the excesses and abuses of the monarch’s power. In the North, the Northumberland barons are still not happy and transfer allegiance from John to Alexander of Scotland. Alexander raids as far south as Newcastle.

Oldgate Bridge, Morpeth is a modern bridge.
Oldgate Bridge, Morpeth is a modern bridge. Photo © David Simpson 2018

1216 – John attacks Northumberland

John burns Morpeth, Alnwick and Berwick and drives out the Scots and then attacks the Scottish lowlands. Cumbria is harried by the Scots as John returns to England and Bowes Castle, a royal stronghold in Teesdale is attacked by John’s enemies.

1216 – Guild merchant status for Newcastle

King John bestows guild merchant status on Newcastle.

Oct 18 1216 – KING HENRY III

King John dies and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son who becomes Henry III. The Scots raid the north throughout the following year.

1221 – Anglo-Scottish marriage

Alexander II of Scotland marries Henry III’s sister, Joan, at York.

1220 – White Mere Pool

A lake called the White Mere Pool is mentioned at this time. It is situated between Boldon and Heworth and will later be called the White Mare Pool.

1228 – South Shields

At this time the name of South Shields is recorded as ‘the Sheales upon the South’.

1229 – Wearmouth Rector

William of Durham became Rector of Wearmouth this year. On his death he left a bequest for the founding of what would become University College, Oxford.

Upper Weardale scenery near Westgate.
Upper Weardale scenery near Westgate. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Circa 1230 – Weardale hunting park

The Bishop of Durham sets aside an extensive area of Weardale as a hunting ground. Meanwhile the official residence of the Archbishop of York has been established at Bishopthorpe just outside York.

1230 – Robin Hood a Yorkshire rebel

Although normally associated with Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire and the reign of Richard I, most of Robin Hood’s activities seem to have taken place in the  forests of southern Yorkshire during Henry III’s reign. Robin may also have been involved with smuggling at Robin Hood’s Bay on the North Yorkshire coast.

1234 – Plague at Newcastle

Plague breaks out in populous Newcastle, killing many over three years.

1237 – Greyfriars in Newcastle

Franciscan Greyfriars settled in Newcastle in 1237 (in the area that is now Tyneside Cinema).

Sep 1237 – The Scottish Border

The Treaty of York recognises the rights of Scottish kings in Tynedale and Cumberland but not sovereignty. Henry III and Alexander II agree that the Scottish border should be fixed along the Tweed-Esk-Solway line.

1239 – Blackfriars

Dominican friars known as ‘Blackfriars’ establish a friarage in Newcastle.

Prudhoe Castle.
Prudhoe Castle. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Aug 14, 1244 – Border truce at Newcastle

Disputes over the exact course of the Scottish border arise but Henry III and Alexander II meet at Newcastle to declare a truce. Alexander’s troops have been threatening the border all year and had besieged Prudhoe Castle.

1246 – Gateshead Market

A Tuesday and Friday market was held in Gateshead from at least as early as 1246. The market stretched across the Tyne Bridge to the Blue Stone which marked the end of the Prince Bishop of Durham’s jurisdiction.

Blackgate Newcastle
The Blackgate, Newcastle. Photo © David Simpson 2018

1247 – Newcastle Blackgate

Henry III builds builds an impressive defensive gateway called Blackgate as an extension to the castle at Newcastle.

1247 – Medieval Hospital at Gateshead

A medieval hospital, deicated to St Edmund has been founded by Nicholas Farnham, Bishop of Durham at Gateshead.

1248 – Tyne Bridge fire at Newcastle

Work on a new bridge in Newcastle begins after a fire destroys the old Tyne bridge.  The damaged stone bridge is medieval and of uncertain date, having replaced an earlier Roman bridge. The bridge has 12 arches.

1249 – Fixing the Border

An attempt is made to fix a proper Scottish border. Border laws are established including the rights of masters to reclaim servants who seek refuge across the border within 40 days. Alexander II dies and is replaced by his eight-year-old son, Alexander I II.

1249 – Wearmouth rector funds Oxford’s first college

William, Rector of Wearmouth, establishes the first College at Oxford University, bequeathing money for the maintenance of ten theological students.

1251 – Newcastle mint and mayor

Newcastle’s civic status is increasing. In 1249 Henry III established a mint here and this year the Chief Bailiff earned the title of mayor.

Dec 25, 1251 – Anglo-Scottish marriage

Alexander III of Scotland marries Henry III’s daughter Margaret at York. The marriage takes place in St Mary’s abbey for a dowry of 5,000 marks. Alex is ten years old, Margaret is 11.

1256 – Carmelite friars relocate

The Carmelite ‘Whitefriars’ move their friary from Pandon to what is now the Forth Street area of Newcastle.

1258 – Franciscans

A community of Franciscan friars is recorded at Hartlepool.

1259 – Bake and brew restrictions at South Shields

Threatened by the posibility of a port and trade developing at the mouth of the Tyne Newcastle makes an order to the Priors of Durham at South Shields that they can only bake or brew for themselves and not for visitors.

1260 – Dominicans

A Dominican Friary is established at Yarm. The establishment of a friary is often the sign of a thriving town.

1262 – Adam’s Camera

Sheriff of Northumberland, Adam of Jesmond establishes a home at Heaton. Some remains of his house called Adam’s Camera can still be seen.

1262 – Carmelite friars in Newcastle

A friarage of Carmelite Whitefriars is established in Newcastle near the Pandon Burn.

Ruins of Barnard Castle
Ruins of Balliol’s castle at Barnard Castle’s castle above the River Tees : Photo © David Simpson

1263 – Balliol College founded as penance to bishop

Baliol College is established at Oxford after John Balliol of Barnard Castle insulted Walter Kirkham, the Bishop of Durham, in a land dispute. As a penance, Balliol agrees to finance students at Oxford to form what becomes Baliol College.

Newcastle Town Wall
Newcastle town walls © David Simpson

1265 – Newcastle town walls

The burgesses of Newcastle comence the construction of the town walls. A tax is implemented for the payment of their construction. They will be 25 feet high and never less than 7 feet thick.

1266 – Scotland gains Viking islands

The Isle of Man and the Hebrides are sold by Norway to Alexander of Scotland. Held by Norway since Viking times, they still speak Norse.

1267 – ‘Satan’s satellites of Newcastle’ descend on North Shields

Newcastle Mayor Nicholas Scott and the Newcastle bugesses head for North Shields where they beat up the Tynemouth monks, set alight to the huts of the fishermen and burn the nearby mills. They then steal a vessel full of coal. The assailants are described by one commentator as ‘Satan’s satellites of Newcastle-upon-Tyne’. The Newcastle men are determined to prevent the threat of a rival port developing in competition with their town.

1270 – Nevilles inherit Wensleydale castle

Middleham Castle in Wensleydale passes into the hands of the powerful Neville family of Raby Castle by marriage.

Greatham Hospital. Photo © David Simpson 2018.

1272 – Greatham Hospital

Bishop Stitchill of Durham establishes a hospital at Greatham near Hartlepool.

1272 – Edward I is king

Edward I becomes the new King of England.

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