Category Archives: Sunderland

Get Busy Outdoors this Spring

With ever-increasing signs of springtime emerging ANDREA SCOTT explores the worthwhile work of countryside volunteering through local wildlife trusts. It’s a great way to keep fit and contribute to improving the local environment.

Castle Eden Dene
Beautiful natural environment. Castle Eden Dene Photo © David Simpson 2018

As the first signs of Spring emerge, our local countryside becomes greener and more beautiful.  One way to enjoy the thawing outdoors is to do some worthwhile volunteer work in your region. Volunteers can develop their interest in wildlife, improve local countryside, get fitter and meet like-minded people. They can look back on a project knowing that they’ve helped to make a positive difference.

The Wildlife Trust has around 43,000 volunteers in the United Kingdom. Northumberland Wildlife Trust (NWT) owns and manages 62 nature reserves with the help of over 250 volunteers. Their Community Conservation Project engages the public through its local nature reserves. These support a wide range of species, monitored by regular surveys. Task volunteers help with habitat management and maintenance of infrastructure.

Heart of Durham volunteers at Thornley Woods

Lou Chapman has been organising volunteers since 2009. “We have so many opportunities. Practical conservation out on nature reserves is our biggest role, however, people can help out in our cafes, information assistance to visitors on reserves, community engagement events, education programme, reception assistance, helping in the office environment. You name it, we probably do it!”

Volunteers are not held to a set timetable. “Time commitments vary depending upon the role you choose to do. For example, to do a practical conservation day, it’s a full day from 9:15am until 4pm or for helping on reception or in the café it can be a couple of hours on a given day. You don’t even have to do a weekly commitment, it’s very flexible… some people come once per month or even less. It’s fun and flexible and not a ‘job’. We want our volunteers to enjoy their time here and essentially want to come back.”

Lou wants to encourage potential new recruits. “Go for it, you won’t know if you like it if you don’t try. Whatever your skills and experience or background you are welcome. Even if you feel you don’t have any, we will train you up. At NWT we offer a ‘trial go’ so you can see what’s it’s like before fully registering. We know volunteering is not for everyone but we offer so many different opportunities… to get involved in both inside and outside that it’s worth giving it a try. Everyone is very friendly and open to new people coming in. It’s great for your mental health too!”

Durham Wildlife Trust volunteers, Rainton Meadows

Margaret Brabbon has been volunteering for Durham Wildlife Trust (DWT) for over 9 years. “Initially I was looking for something when I retired from a teaching profession. I am a practical person and enjoy being with people. I had never been involved with any conservation work before and thoroughly enjoy it. The advantage of volunteering here is that people can drop in and drop out when it suits them. I spend one day a week doing the conservation work and another two days helping with admin. The most enjoyable aspect about volunteering for me is being with completely new people from different walks of life and learning new skills. At all times of the year there are a variety of tasks and we get to see many different sites across the county…reclaimed quarries, meadows and coastal areas.”

Task force volunteer, Faye Butler attended a volunteer recruitment day and signed up. “I have been volunteering for DWT for over 3 years, having been a member of the trust for several years. I had a 35-year nursing career in the NHS and retired from my position as a matron in surgery prior to starting volunteering. I have a keen lifelong interest in nature and the outdoors and when thinking about my plan for retirement I knew I wanted to be involved in conservation and protecting the environment. I also wanted something that would help me keep fit in mind and body and as a nurse I am aware of the beneficial and therapeutic effects of being outdoors and working in green spaces.”

Kepier Wood Durham
Woodland at Kepier, Durham. Photo © David Simpson 2017

Faye says, “There are many aspects of volunteering with DWT which I enjoy: being part of a team and having new colleagues, having a hard day’s graft, learning new skills. Each week a programme of tasks to be undertaken are emailed out to the volunteer workforce. This could be anything from path repairs, building a boardwalk, felling trees, clearing out ponds or cutting back undergrowth. The task could be on any one of the many and diverse reserves managed by DWT. It is often hard physical work but you feel great at the end of the day with a real sense of achievement. I like the idea of lifelong learning and DWT is excellent at providing training opportunities. So far, I’ve been on a drystone walling course, strimmer training and using pesticides training. I’ve also attended courses on identifying ferns, trees in winter, amphibians and reptiles. I like to think I am giving something back and helping DWT to protect and preserve wonderful environments for future generations.”

Forestry Commission England organise volunteers in practical conservation, vegetation management, maintenance of trails and wildlife surveys. Their Kielder Water and Forest Park hold special trail-building days to improve the forest’s vast network of walking, cycling and horse-riding trails. Volunteers are also needed for their Osprey Project, to watch nests and engage with the public at viewing sites. If that doesn’t appeal, there are jobs indoors, such as visitor centre work or help with reception or events.

At Hamsterley Forest, rangers lead volunteers on the first and third Thursday of every month to undertake trail checks and maintenance of facilities. Hamsterley Trailblazers focus on developing the forest’s full potential as a mountain bike centre. They organise monthly trail-building sessions to maintain existing cycle trails and develop new ones.

Local voluntary groups include the Gateshead-based, Friends of Chopwell Wood (FoCW) a practical maintenance group that meet in the woods (on second and fourth Wednesdays of the month). The group is more than ten years old and was formed by the FoCW committee to care for this very special woodland.  Have a search locally, email a few groups to find out what they do and come along to try it out. The FoCW volunteers can take part in a wide range of projects, help run events like bat watching, pond dipping, fungal foraging, green wood-crafting, or help with litter picking and general maintenance. Regular volunteers help at least once a month but there are several one-off volunteering events where extra hands are needed such as the spring clean or the Woodfest event which require a couple of hours a year.  Help is always required at their biggest annual event, the Christmas Experience and tree sales.

Cambois beach looking south towards Blyth
Cambois beach looking south towards Blyth. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Why not help to improve our coastal areas for wildlife as well as people? Beachwatch, a programme organised by the Martine Conservation Society, organise regular beach clean ups. All you need to do is sign up as a volunteer and turn up. Nic Emery, organiser of the Cambois beach cleans near Blyth recommends it. “Joining an organised event is great because likeminded folk are getting together and leave with an enormous sense of accomplishment after they helped remove hundreds of kilos of trash from the beach. Some of our volunteers aren’t even local – they come from all over the country!”

Volunteer Sharon Lashley has recently organised an event at Roker, as part of the 2018 Great British Beach Clean. “Our beach cleans are a great way of getting people involved locally and it’s important that we involve as many people as possible – they are also a great way of encouraging people to enjoy activities in the fresh air, socialise and network with others whilst, most importantly, tidying up the beaches and stopping litter and rubbish making its way back out to sea.”

Volunteers at Roker Beach

If gardening is your passion, why not get involved with the National Trust or English Heritage? Horticultural volunteers are needed all year round to help gardens thrive. As well as basic tasks, you can learn about planting schemes, supervise the gardens, give tours and demonstrations or interact with visitors. National Trust offer opportunities to help with their Coast and Countryside conservation project. Opportunities include dry stone walling, woodland work, maintenance of fencing and pathways, conducting bio-surveys of species and leading guided walks.

The Red Squirrels United group works to protect red squirrel strongholds through a robust grey squirrel management programme. It is a huge partnership, uniting more than thirty UK organisations. Why not join the 1200 community based rapid response team of volunteers? They assist in reporting grey sightings, monitoring feeders, setting up cameras and educating the public. Northeast Red Squirrels is a charity working with existing volunteer groups to engage with local communities to help conserve red squirrels. Their Red Squirrels Newcastle Project aims to boost the red population to the west of the city. ‘Adopt a Wood’ volunteers are currently needed to monitor feeders in the area. “Our strategy is ambitious, but with dedication from local volunteers and landowners is totally achievable.”

There are so many reasons to get involved. Personal benefits, mental, physical and social as well as helping to improve our natural environment and local wildlife. It could change your life. Why not contact one of your local organisations today?

Durham Wildlife Trust: 0191 5843112; email volunteer@durhamwt.co.uk

Northumberland Wildlife Trust: 0191 2846884; email volunteer@northwt.org.uk

Hamsterley Forest (Forestry Commission): Tel. 01388 488312; email laura.turtle@forestry.gsi.gov.uk

Kielder Water and Forest Park (Forestry Commission)  www.visitkielder.com/outdoor-event/kielder-volunteers; Tel. 01434 250209;

Friends of Chopwell Wood friendsofchopwellwood.org.uk : Tel. 01207 542495

English Heritage: www.english-heritage.org.uk

National Trust: www.nationaltrust.org.uk/volunteer

Marine Conservation Society: www.mcsuk.org/how-you-can-help

Northeast Red Squirrels: 07779 577485; email info@northeastredsquirrels.co.uk

Red Squirrels United: www.redsquirrelsunited.org.uk

Sundered Land, New Castle, Goat’s Head : What’s in a North East Place Name?

North East place-names and their origins. DAVID SIMPSON explores the sometimes surprising meanings of place-names in the North East region.

Wearmouth Bridge
Wearmouth Bridge, Sunderland : Photo © David Simpson.

Sunderland was the sundered or separated land, Newcastle was simply a ‘New’ Castle and Gateshead was, quite strangely, the ‘head of the she-goat’. We take place-names for granted but all have an origin and meaning that is often long forgotten or sometimes lost in time.  No one actually knows how London got its name, for example.

I’ve always been fascinated by place-name origins. It’s an unusual hobby perhaps, though I find it rather strange that few people share my curiosity for such everyday features of our world. Peculiar place-names like Pity Me arouse much interest – and are often rather plainly explained as ‘poor farmland’ although there’s a wealth of more popular if rather dubious theories. In truth I think that everyday names can be just as interesting.

Some place-names give clues to the origins of the early settlers who founded the place. For example in the south of our region around Middlesbrough there are many place-names ending in the element ‘by’: Thornaby, Ormesby, Tollesby, Normanby, Danby, Lackenby, Lazenby, Maltby and so on. These are all Viking – and usually Danish in origin (though Normanby points to Norwegian ‘northmen’). Such names are numerous just south of the Tees in the once intensively Viking settled area of North Yorkshire. They are quite rare north of the Tees – Aislaby near Yarm and Raby (Castle) near Darlington are exceptions not  that far north of the river.

Transporter Bridge from Port Clarence looking towards Middlesbrough
The Transporter Bridge, Middlesbrough. Viking place-names are numerous in the Middlesbrough area.. Photo © David Simpson 2018

These ‘by’ ending names can also be found in Viking settled Cumbria particularly along the Eden valley all the way up towards Carlisle and there are a fair few in the Merseyside area in the North West of England. In Old Danish a ‘by’ was a Viking farm or village and even today a quick scan of a map of Denmark and you’ll find dozens and dozens of little villages with names like Norby, Kaerby, Staby, Balleby, Foldby, Karlby, Draby, Voldby, Rakkeby and Mejby. Many of these wouldn’t seem at all out of place in North Yorkshire.

Most place-names in England, including the North East England usually of Anglo-Saxon origin. The Angles and Saxons were a Germanic people closely related to the later Vikings. The original Anglo-Saxon coastal homelands stretched from Frisia and the Netherlands up to the present day border of Germany and Denmark.

The Angles, for example, who gave their name to England (the Angle Land) settled extensively in Northumbria and originated from Angeln near the border of those two countries and settled in our islands as invading warriors some three centuries before the Vikings arrived on our shores. Just about anything ending in ‘ton’ or ‘ham’ is Anglo-Saxon including most of those ‘ingtons’ and ‘inghams: Darlington, Bedlington, Billingham, Bellingham and so on. A ‘ham’ was a homestead and a ‘ton’ an enclosed settlement. Ton or ‘tun’ to give the old spelling was, incidentally originally pronounced ‘toon’ and is at the root of our modern word ‘town’. Sound familiar?

Nathaniel Buck's view of Newcastle 1745
Newcastle – an historic view of the ‘toon’ or should that be ‘tun’? Pictured in 1745..

I’m really into place-names for fun but with a quest for true knowledge about the place-names as part of our region’s history. I’m an amateur enthusiast when it comes to place-names to be honest. It is in fact a serious scholarly study and often a complicated one at that.

You can’t simply look at a place-name and guess what it might mean. You have to go back to the earliest known recorded spelling from perhaps a thousand years ago or more and work back from there.

Most place-name experts are skilled linguists with knowledge of several languages that are no longer spoken today like Old English (the language of the Anglo-Saxons), or the Old Norse of the Vikings as well as old Celtic languages like Brythonic. The experts will have knowledge of how these languages evolved and changed over time and in the case of Old English and Old Norse, how they fused together along with the later Norman French to form the basis of the English language as we know it today.

A good knowledge of local dialect, local history and local topography is also very useful to the scholar of place-names. In fact its essential right down to a knowledge of local soil types, drainage (at that time) and the suitability of land for early farming and settlement.

So, what about familiar names like Sunderland, Newcastle and Gateshead? Well the ‘separateness’ of Sunderland dates to Anglo-Saxon times and refers to land detached or ‘sundered’ from an estate by the King of Northumbria for the use of the Wearmouth monastery.

The ‘New’ Castle of Newcastle dates to Norman times, the first castle being built by William the Conqueror’s eldest son Robert Curthose in 1080 on the site of a Roman fort. At that time the long-since ruined and redundant Roman fort and its associated surviving settlement was called Monkchester, and although this might be considered the ‘old castle’, it seems the rebuilding of the Norman castle by Henry II in the twelfth century was the origin of the true ‘New Castle’.

Church of St Mary, Gateshead and Tyne Bridge
Gateshead – ‘Head of the She Goat’ : Photo © David Simpson

Just as intriguing, Gateshead across the Tyne lies at the head of the road or way dating back to Roman times and perhaps earlier. Roads were sometimes called ‘gates’ in times past but this term was more commonly used for old streets in towns. ‘Head of the gate’ seems a plausible explanation for Gateshead, however, the Venerable Bede, writing in the seventh century describes Gateshead in Latin as ‘Ad Caprae Caput’ – meaning ‘the head of the she goat’ so perhaps there was some form of totem or symbol of a goat’s head overlooking the ancient bridge across the Tyne.

 

More place-names explained

Ashington: ‘Ing’ usually means a kinship or tribal group and ‘ton’ usually means an enclosed settlement. On the surface Ashington looks like ‘the place belonging to the people of a person called Ash’ or something similar. However the earliest spelling in old records is  Aescen-denu’ and this is an Anglo-Saxon place-name that means ‘valley (dene) overgrown with ash trees’. It shows how important it is to find the oldest spellings.

Bamburgh: From Bebba’s Burgh, a burgh or fortified place named from a Northumbrian queen called Bebba who was the wife of King Æthelfrith. Before Æthelfrith’s time it was known by the Celtic name Din Guayroi.

Beautiful Bamburgh.
Beautiful Bamburgh. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Bishop Auckland: A complicated one this. The old name was Alcuith – a Celtic name referring to a river. Later it became the home of a castle and palace belonging to the Bishops of Durham hence the ‘Bishop’ part of the name. The old name came to be changed to Auckland (perhaps meaning ‘oakland’).

Chester-le-Street: Places containing the word ‘Chester’ are usually Anglo-Saxon in origin even though they refer to the earlier site of a Roman fort. ‘Street’ usually refers to a Roman road. ‘Le’ was added by the Normans as part of a suffix to distinguish places with similar names Le-Street distinguishes it from other places called Chester. Other ‘le’ places with potentially confusing similar names are Houghton-le-Spring, Houghton-le-Side, Haughton-le-Skerne, Hetton-le-Hill, Hetton-le-Hole and in North Yorkshire we have  Hutton-le-Hole.

Darlington : Originally something like Deornoth’s People’s enclosure. You’d never guess this unless you could see early spellings.

Durham : Originally Dun Holm, ‘the hill island’. In Norman French it was Duresme and in Latin it was Dunelm.

Hartlepool : Means ‘Stag Island Pool’. Le-Pool was added by the Normans to distinguish it from the nearby village of Hart. Unlike other ‘le’ place-names it doesn’t use hyphens but it could have become Hart-le-Pool.

Middlesbrough: Means middle manor or perhaps middle fortified place. One theory is that it is named from its middle location between the historic Christian centres of Whitby and Durham.

Stanhope: Means ‘stony side valley’. Hope meaning land in a ‘side valley’ is a common element in North Eats place names, especially in the hilly country of the west.

Warkworth: Wark comes from ‘weorc’ – an earthwork or castle and ‘worth’, an enclosed settlement. The villages of Wark on Tyne and Wark on Tweed were both the site of castles built on earthworks.

 

Majestic marvels: the castles of North East England

DAVID SIMPSON looks at the fantastic variety of castles found in North East England.

Newcastle Castle Keep
Newcastle Castle Keep Photo © David Simpson 2015

‘Northumbria’, the historic kingdom of North East England has an extraordinary variety of wonderful castles and fortifications. Even the three cities of the region: Durham, Sunderland and of course Newcastle have a castle each, while Northumberland has more castles than any other county in the whole of England. Several are pretty spectacular too.

The castles range from fortified tower houses called ‘pele towers’ and fortified farms and barns called ‘bastles’ to grand medieval fortresses like Alnwick. Today a handful of castles are nothing more than a mound in the ground but there are still plenty more that stand as magnificent ruins or even as the complete article, though often with architectural additions of differing ages.

Some castles are private residences, some are hotels while others are major visitor attractions drawing people from far and wide. Here we thought we’d take a quick wander around the castles of our kingdom.

Three cities :  Three castles

It still takes me aback when visitors express surprise that Newcastle has a castle – yet the clue is there, in the name. Newcastle’s castle of course gave its name to the famed city upon the Tyne and dates from Norman times. Before then the town was known by its old Anglo-Saxon name of Monkchester.

Cathedral and castle Blackgate Newcastle
The Blackgate and St Nicholas Cathedral, Newcastle : Photo © 2015 David

It was Robert Curthose, the eldest son of William the Conqueror who built the first castle here of ‘earth and wood’ on the site of a Roman fort overlooking the Tyne. It was replaced later by another new castle on the same site that was built in 1172 during the reign of Henry II.

Today the castle survives in two parts, namely the formidable Norman keep which dates from the 1170s and the beautiful Blackgate which dates from 1247. The two parts are separated from one another by the Victorian railway that cut the old castle site in two halves. Great views of the setting of Newcastle can be found from the top of the castle keep and logically there is perhaps no better starting point to explore the history of ‘the toon’.

The castle protected the development of the early town of Newcastle but its importance in the defence of the place became less significant following the development of the medieval town walls from 1265. Nevertheless when Newcastle came under siege during the Civil War in the 1640s it was the castle that was the last place to hold out.

Castle gateway
Castle gateway.Photo © David Simpson 2017

Durham Castle in Durham City stands on the neck of the peninsula formed by the River Wear and dates from Norman times. There was an earlier Saxon fortification on the same site and it successfully defended the little city and its neighbouring Saxon minster. It seems to have fulfilled its defensive role rather well as Durham held out against the Scots in 1006 and 1038.

William the Conqueror ordered that a new castle should be built here in 1072 and it developed from thereon with much of the older parts of the present castle dating from the reign of Bishop Pudsey (1153-1195). The castle keep is the most imposing part of the building and houses students of Durham University but the keep is in fact largely a nineteenth century restoration with the original having fallen into a ruinous condition. The keep was rebuilt in the 1840s at around the time the castle became part of Durham University.

The castle keep, Durham
The castle keep, Durham Photo © David Simpson 2017

Much of the main body of Durham castle is, however, genuinely medieval, notably the great dining hall, though later parts of the building date from the Tudor and Georgian eras. Of course today, the castle is part of a World Heritage site that includes the neighbouring Durham Cathedral. A curious fact is that the whole river peninsula of Durham was once considered to be ‘the Castle’. So, the cathedral technically lay within the castle which is why the castle bailey that now takes the form of two streets called the Baileys runs along the cathedral’s eastern flank.

It is sometimes forgotten that the City of Sunderland has a castle too though it lies away from the city centre to the west, where it gives its name to one of the Sunderland suburbs on the north side of the River Wear. Hylton Castle was built around 1400 by a William de Hylton on a hill overlooking the Wear and guarded a nearby ferry that was in operation from the 1320s.

Hylton Castle
Hylton Castle Photo © 2017 David Simpson

Hylton – the hill settlement – was the name of the nearby village from which the Hylton family took their name. Currently the castle is undergoing an exciting transformation into a living, working building that will benefit both the local community and visitors. The Hylton family had owned an earlier manor house on the site and became a powerful local family of note. Interestingly one member of the family later became a Governor of Tynemouth Castle.

Castles of the Coast

Tynemouth Castle is one of four splendid castles to adorn the North East coast between the Tyne and the Tweed.  It stands high above the mouth of the Tyne and forms a splendid backdrop to the neighbouring sands of King Edward’s Bay. In a similar way to Durham Cathedral being enclosed within Durham Castle, the castle at Tynemouth enclosed the Priory of Tynemouth.

Tynemouth Castle and the bay
Tynemouth Castle and the bay Photo © 2018 David Simpson

In the reign of Henry VIII when Tynemouth Priory was closed for all time, the castle remained an important place of defence against the threat of Spanish, French or Scottish forces. Today, the priory and castle form a magnificent romantic ruin and a superb historic focal point for the fabulously genteel and lively seaside town of Tynemouth.

However, as far as romantic coastal ruins go Tynemouth has a great rival further north up at Dunstanburgh near Craster on the Northumberland coast. This enigmatic castle was built in 1313 by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster and was extended by John of Gaunt in the 1380s. It occupies the largest site of any castle in the region and is a strong rival to Tynemouth for being the best-known coastal castle in the region. In truth both are overshadowed by the stupendous Bamburgh Castle, which is arguably one of the best-known castles in the world. For its setting, history and occasional movie appearances, Bamburgh is hard to beat when it comes to the North East castle hall of fame.

Built on a site occupied since prehistoric times, Bamburgh can only be described as iconic such is its fame and magnificence. It was the site of the northern capital of the Northumbrians, consisting of a communal fortress and citadel but the building we see today is not the Bebbanburgh of Anglo-Saxon times as the place was refortified as a castle in Norman times.

Beautiful Bamburgh.
Beautiful Bamburgh. Photo © David Simpson 2018

The huge keep at Bamburgh is twelfth century and much of the surrounding walls are medieval though the castle underwent much-needed restoration during its ownership by the famed Victorian industrialist William Lord Armstrong who also resided at Cragside. One unusual feature of the castle is that it has its own windmill (though no longer with sails) which can be seen at the western end of the castle.

Of course, equally romantic to Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh is  Lindisfarne Castle first built in 1550 on Beblowe Rock, the highest point on Holy Island which lies off the coast to the north of Bamburgh. This castle was beautifully restored and converted into a private residence by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1903 and seems to almost grow out naturally from its rocky base. It is now owned by the National Trust.

Lindisfarne Castle
Lindisfarne Castle : Photo © 2015 David Simpson

Percy and Neville

The grandest castles were often the homes to the most powerful barons and in the North East the Neville and Percy families ranked highest of them all. Brancepeth Castle near Durham was a Neville stronghold and one of the places at which the family plotted the Rising of the North against Queen Elizabeth I along with the Percys. However, it is Raby Castle with which the Neville family is most famously associated in the region. Situated near Staindrop in County Durham, Raby Castle stands within a beautiful deer park in Teesdale and is a quite breathtaking site when seen passing on the neighbouring road.

Raby Castle
Raby Castle © David Simpson 2018

Raby is stunning but is rivalled by Northumberland’s Alnwick Castle, the famous stronghold of the Percys who were the Earls of Northumberland. Famous Percys included Harry Hotspur (1364-1403), the war-hungry son of the First Earl of Northumberland.

Alnwick Castle
Alnwick Castle Photo © David Simpson 2018

Today, however Alnwick is perhaps more closely associated with another Harry, Harry Potter, ever since the famous quidditch scenes of the movie were filmed here.

The Percys also owned Warkworth Castle near the mouth of the River Coquet, a castle that features in Shakespeare’s Henry IV and with which Hotspur has the strongest connection. Another castle,  Prudhoe Castle, where the Tyne Valley meets Tyneside was yet another Percy stronghold and holds the distinction of apparently being the only major medieval castle in the North East that was never taken by the Scots.

Warkworth Castle
Warkworth Castle. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Lumley, Langley

Lumley Castle in County Durham and Langley Castle in Tynedale, Northumberland are two particularly beautiful medieval castles which now serve as hotels. As hotels both often celebrate their historic roots by holding themed medieval banquets. Interestingly both also have a similar square-shaped design with four corner towers.

Langley Castle
Langley Castle. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Langley Castle’s owners in medieval times included both the Percys and the Nevilles although other powerful families included the Radcliffes and Umfravilles. Lumley Castle once belonged to the Lumley family who were often involved in political intrigue in times past.

Lumley Castle
Lumley Castle Photo John Simpson

Another lesser-known castle that now serves as a hotel is Walworth Castle near Darlington which was built by a Thomas Jennison, Auditor of Ireland in 1603 but traces its earlier origins back to 1189.

Walworth Castle
Walworth Castle. Photo © David Simpson 2018

County Durham castles

On the whole castles are much less numerous in County Durham and the Tees Valley than they are in Northumberland to the north because it is that bit more distant from the Scottish Borders.

Ruins of Barnard Castle
Ruins of Barnard Castle’s castle above the River Tees : Photo © David Simpson

Barnard Castle in Teesdale is the best-known ruin in the county of Durham. It was historically associated with the Baliol family whose members included Bernard Baliol from whom the castle and neighbouring town both take their name.

A lesser-known Durham castle is Witton Castle in lower Weardale which now forms the centre of a caravan country park near the pretty village of Witton-le-Wear. This castle was commenced from the conversion of a manor house around 1370 but much was rebuilt around 1700.

Witton Castle.
Witton Castle. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Fortified tower houses or peles, which are so numerous in Northumberland are rare in Durham, though we can see the ruins of such houses at Ludworth east of Durham and at Dalden near Seaham.

Auckland Castle chapel
Auckland Castle chapel. Photo © John Simpson

Several castles in County Durham were historically associated with the powerful Prince Bishops. Durham Castle, we have mentioned but others included Bishop Middleham near Sedgefield of which only a small mound remains. The bishops also held a castle at Stockton of which there is nothing remaining and of course they owned Auckland Castle, often termed Auckland Palace which is still one of the most stunning buildings in the county. Another site of interest is Bishopton, a village near Stockton which has the rather impressive earthworks of a ‘motte and bailey’ castle nearby but which despite its name belonged to a baron called Roger Conyers rather than the bishops.

Earthworks of motte and bailey castle at Bishopton
Earthworks of motte and bailey castle at Bishopton. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Northumberland Castles

In 1415 a list of over one hundred castles was compiled in Northumberland showing the importance of defences in that county in medieval times. These castles varied in scale from simple fortified tower houses to grand castles on the scale of Alnwick and Bamburgh.

Aydon Castle
Aydon Castle. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Amongst the list is Aydon Castle near Corbridge, which is still one of the county’s finest medieval fortifications but on a larger scale are castles such as Ford and Chillingham both in the valley of the River Till in north Northumberland.

Chillingham, a fine medieval castle is a popular attraction today as a rather unusual castle noted for its rather eccentric ‘Aladdin’s Cave’ displays and its exhibition of medieval instruments of torture. Chillingham is also noted for its ghosts – the most haunted castle apparently – though many Northumberland castles such as Blenkinsopp and Bellister in Tynedale also claim to have resident ghosts.

Vicar's Pele at Corbridge
Vicar’s Pele at Corbridge. Photo © David Simpson 2018

Pele towers and bastle houses of note in Northumberland include the vicar’s peles at Corbridge and Elsdon. These kind of pele towers (pele is pronounced peel by the way) were built specifically to protect local clergymen who might have been seen as easy and relatively wealthy prey for raiders in times since past.

Many other pele towers throughout the county were associated with local Border Reiver families. The same was true of the bastles of which examples can be seen in the main street in Haltwhistle or at Black Middens in North Tynedale where we can be impressed by the thickness of the defended walls.

Vicar's Pele, Elsdon
The village of Elsdon in Redesdale showing the vicar’s pele Photo © David Simpson 2019

Many of Northumberland’s castles lie in ruins, notable examples being the impressive remains of Norham Castle which overlook the River Tweed and neighbouring village of Norham. Surprisingly Norham Castle belonged to and was built by the Prince Bishops of Durham as Norhamshire formed an outlying part of their territory.

Norham Castle
Norham Castle Photo © David Simpson 2018

Further north still the town of Berwick upon Tweed was once the site of medieval castle that stood on a site now occupied by the town’s railway station but the main remaining historic defensive feature in that town today is a system of defensive walls that date from Elizabethan times.

Castles, bastles, towers and peles are of course just as much a feature of the border landscape when we cross the border into Scotland to the north: Floors, Duns, Smailholm, Hermitage, Ayton, Cessford and Fatlips are notable examples of castle and peles and there is a similar variety of fortifications to what we will find in Northumberland.

The biggest difference is that across the border we will find many fortifications that have been modified over time to take on that distinctly Scottish, architectural style which has echoes of castles found on the continent in Germany and France but which are not a feature of the Northumberland and Durham landscape.

 

Black Middens bastle
Black Middens Bastle House, North Tynedale. Photo © 2005 David Simpson