North East England : the 70s and 80s
One of the most important political changes of the 1970s was the establishment of the new counties of Cleveland and Tyne and Wear which swallowed up the most populous chunks of Northumberland, Durham and North Yorkshire. Coal mines continued to close in the 1970s and 1980s with the issue coming to a head in the bitter miners’ strike of 1984-85. By the end of the 1980s, there were only six collieries left in the land between Tyne and Tees and only two left in Northumberland.
1970 – Beamish Museum
The North of England Open Air Museum is established at Beamish by Frank Atkinson. The museum will bring to life the social and economic history of the region.
April 1970 – Washington motorway
The Birtley bypass, a section of the A1(M) motorway stretching from junction 63 at Chester-le-Street to Junction 65 near the Bowes Incline is completed near Washington new town with Junction 64 connecting the motorway to Washington itself. The A1(M) is a name given to the upgraded motorway sections of the A1 with earlier sections completed through County Durham in 1965 and 1969. Motorways hail a new era of travel as so many railways and railway stations have closed during the 1960s.
1970 – Sunderland relegated
After only six consecutive seasons in Division One, Sunderland Football Club drop out of the first tier league of English football with relegation to Division Two under the management of Alan Brown.
June 14, 1970 – England out of World Cup
Reigning champions, England are knocked out of the football World Cup in the quarter final stage with a 3-2 defeat to West Germany in the city of Léon in Mexico. Bobby Charlton featured in the game though his brother Jack who had featured in a group game victory over the Czech Republic remained on the bench. Two late substitutes in the West Germany game were North East-born players Norman Hunter and Colin Bell. These were the only players in the squad from the North East but none of the England players were actually players with a North East club side.
June 18, 1970 – Conservatives elected
The Conservative party under Edward Heath is elected to government. In the North East the only party political constituency change was in Middlesbrough West where the Conservatives gained the seat from Labour.
1970 – Fort found at Whickham
Aerial photography reveals a previously unknown Roman fort at Washingwell Farm near Whickham on Tyneside.
1970 – Teesdale reservoir opens
Cow Green reservoir opens in Teesdale supplying homes and industries on Teesside with water. Some of the surrounding landscape becomes a national nature reserve.
1970 – Monsanto on Teesside
Monsanto, a textiles company, establishes a plant at Seal Sands for production of acylonite for making acrylic fibre.
1970 – Thornley Colliery closes
Thornley Colliery in County Durham closes.
1971 – Working in the service sector
About 53 per cent of Tyneside employment is now in the service sector. Manufacturing and heavy industry no longer dominate the Tyneside scene.
Feb 3, 1971 – Get Carter
The gritty 1971 movie Get Carter starring Michael Caine and set in the region, features a number of regional locations including the Durham coast, Blyth and a grim 1960s car park at Gateshead. The film premieres in Los Angeles on February 3rd.
1971 – Colliery closures
Jan-Feb 1972 – Miners’ Strike
Miners go on strike across the UK in a campaign for better pay. The strike eventually ends with a new pay offer at the end of February
1972 – More colliery closures
1972 – Power station at Hartlepool
Hartlepool Nuclear Power Station has started supplying electricity. Its construction began in 1968.
Nov 1972 – Stokoe Sunderland boss
Northumberland miner’s son, Bob Stokoe, who was born at Mickley in the Tyne Valley becomes the new manager of Sunderland AFC. Stokoe leaves the manager’s role at Blackpool to join the Roker Park club. In his playing days Stokoe played only for Newcastle United (261 appearances) and Bury (82 appearances).
May 5, 1973 – Sunderland win FA Cup
Second Division Sunderland Football Club defeat First Division Leeds United 1-0 in the FA Cup final at Wembley with a goal from Scot, Ian Porterfield. Highlights include a split second double save from Sunderland-born goalkeeper, Jimmy Montgomery for his hometown club and an elated dash across the pitch at the end of the match by Sunderland manager, Bob Stokoe wearing his trilby and raincoat. It is Sunderland’s third ever appearance in a cup final and their second victory, having previously won it in 1937. Manager Stokoe, a miner’s son from Northumberland had played for Newcastle United in the 1955 FA Cup final victory over Manchester City.
May 7, 1973 – Big Jack Boro manager
Ashington-born Jack Charlton becomes the manager of Middlesbrough. He succeeds Middlesbrough-born, Harold Shepherson who had taken on the job as a temporary measure, managing the club for 17 games from January to May following the departure of Stan Anderson. Shepherdson is best-known for being the long term England Assistant Manager to Alf Ramsey including the World Cup final win of 1966 in which Jack Charlton played.
May 22, 1973 – Lambton resigns over scandal
Conservative MP for Berwick-upon-Tweed, Antony Lambton, (‘Lord Lambton’) of the well-known Durham Lambton family resigns from office. He is the Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Defence. He also resigns as the Berwick MP. It follows the exposure of a scandal involving call girls. In November, a by-election will be held in which the Liberal party candidate Alan Beith is elected as the MP for Berwick. Lambton had held the Berwick seat since 1951.
1973 – Colliery closures
North East collieries closing this year were Bardon Mill in the Tyne valley; Fenwick Colliery at Backworth; Fishburn near Sedgefield; Ravensworth Ann Colliery near Gateshead (also known as Team or Eighton Colliery); Morrison Busty near Annfield Plain and South Moor Colliery near Stanley.
Jan-Feb 1974 – Three-Day Week election
At the beginning of January the Conservative government of Edward Heath enforced a three-day week across the nation for commercial users (with the exception of essential services) to help conserve the consumption of electricity. Businesses will only be allowed to operate for three consecutive days each week. The measures follow industrial action by coal miners who have introduced an overtime ban that have halved energy production in response to unmet pay demands. Believing he has the support of the people, Heath holds a General Election on February 28. Heath loses and Harold Wilson’s Labour Party return to power by a narrow margin.
April 1, 1974 – ‘Tyne and Wear’ created
Local government reforms considerably change the shape and identity of County Durham’s ancient boundaries with an impact in Northumberland and Yorkshire too. Gateshead, Jarrow, Blaydon, South Shields and Sunderland are all moved from their historic place in County Durham into a newly created county called ‘Tyne and Wear’. It is a functional name that almost gives the impression of a place worn by time. Those parts of Tyneside north of the Tyne (historically in Northumberland) are also moved into Tyne and Wear.
April 1, 1974 – ‘Cleveland’ created
In the south-eastern corner of County Durham, Hartlepool is moved into a newly-created county called ‘Cleveland’ which includes most of the ‘Borough of Teesside’ that was created in 1968. The new county of Cleveland includes some areas of rural North Yorkshire that were genuinely part of an ancient district of Yorkshire called Cleveland, such as Guisborough. Confusingly, some parts of ancient Cleveland further to the south like the village called Carlton-in-Cleveland near Stokesley, are not included in the new ‘county’ of Cleveland. To further confuse, a quite separate village called Carlton near Stockton-on-Tees, that was historically in County Durham, now finds itself ‘in Cleveland’. Bureaucrats who created the new county no doubt just liked the name.
April 1, 1974 – Northumbrian Water
The public sector Northumbrian Water Authority is established, taking over responsibility for water supply and sewage treatment from numerous water authorities across the whole region. For now only Hartlepool; Newcastle & Gateshead and Sunderland & Shields water companies remain outside the Northumbrian Water area.
April 26, 1974 – Former city leader jailed
The career of former Newcastle City leader T Dan Smith ends in dishonour after he is jailed six years for corruption. He was once widely admired for his vision for the region. Former leader of Durham County Council, Andrew Cunningham and architect John Poulson also receive sentences.
1974 – Boro promoted
Middlesbrough football club are promoted to Division One. The club has not played in this top tier of English football since the 1953-54 season.
1974 – Colliery closures
Collieries closing this year were Elemore near Pittington (the colliery for Easington Lane); Whitworth Park Colliery near Spennymoor; Nettlesworth near Sacriston; Usworth near Washington; Kibblesworth Colliery near Gateshead and Wardley Colliery near White Mare Pool all in the Durham coalfield and Netherton Colliery near Bedlington in Northumberland.
Oct 10, 1974 – Second election this year
Despite his victory in the February election, Harold Wilson’s Labour Party was short of an overall majority, so a second election is held in with Labour winning by a very narrow majority. In the February election there were no party political changes in the North East other than the election of an ‘Independent Labour’ MP in Blyth though this constituency would return to the official Labour candidate in October. Liberal MP for Berwick, Alan Beith, elected in a by-election following the Lambton scandal of 1973, continued to hold the seat in both of the 1974 elections. He will do so up until his retirement in 2015.
1974 – Tyne and Wear Metro commenced
The building of the Metro Rapid Transport System commences on Tyneside. It will prove to be a hugely popular, successful, efficient and accessible form of public transport though many parts of Tyneside and Wearside will not be reached by its network.
1974 – Foster Sports Personality
Tyneside athlete Brendan Foster is voted the BBC’s Sports Personality of the Year. This year Foster won the Gold medal in the 5,000 metres at the European Championships in Rome and Silver medal in the Commonwealth Games in Christchurch, New Zealand. Last year Foster had broken the World Record for two miles at Crystal Palace. Foster had previously focused on middle distance running. At 1,500 metres he had been the Bronze medallist in the 1970 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh and European Championships in Helsinki in 1971.
May 27, 1975 – Britain’s worst road tragedy
A coach driver and thirty-two female passengers from Thornaby on Tees lost their lives in a tragic accident at Dibbles Bridge near Hebden in the Yorkshire Dales. The coach crashed through a parapet and overturned at the foot of a steep gradient following a brake failure. A further thirteen passengers, all part of a day trip out, survived.
June 1975 – Gordon Lee at NUFC
Gordon Lee leaves his managerial post at Blackburn Rovers to become manager of Newcastle United FC. He will take the club to a League Cup final in 1976.
Sept 1975 – Railway celebrations
The 150th anniversary celebrations of the Stockton and Darlington Railway are held. The Duke of Edinburgh visits the celebrations at Preston Park and opens the North Road Station Museum in Darlington. At the end of August an impressive cavalcade of steam locomotives headed by a working replica of George Stephenson’s Locomotion Number One of 1825, travel in procession along part of the route of the famous railway between Shildon and Heighington.
1975 – Colliery closures
Jan 1976 – When the Boat Comes In
A new TV drama series entitled When the Boat Comes In, set in a fictional North East town called Gallowshield after the First World War, airs this month on BBC television. It features James Bolam in the role of Jack Ford, a returning veteran struggling with the challenges of the 1920s and 30s (a further three series will follow, with the last episode in April 1981). Script writers for the series included Tom Hadaway, Sid Chaplin and Alex Glasgow who also sung and wrote the adapted version of the traditional North East song as the theme tune from which the series was named.
1976 – Kielder Reservoir
April 5, 1976 – New PM
James Callaghan is elected as new leader of Labour by his party following the surprise resignation of Prime Minister, Harold Wilson.
April 26, 1976 – Actor dies on stage
Actor, Sid James dies of a heart attack on stage at the Sunderland Empire Theatre. James, who was born in South Africa, was best-known as a TV comedy actor and as a star of the Carry On series of comedy films.
1976 – Sunderland promoted
Sunderland Football Club are promoted to Division One under the guidance of manager Bob Stokoe who had led the club to an FA Cup final win in 1973..
July 1976 – Supermac sold for £333,333
Newcastle United manager Gordon Lee sells Magpies hero ‘Supermac’ Malcolm MacDonald to Arsenal for £333,333. Earlier this year MacDonald had played for Newcastle in their defeat to Manchester City in the League Cup final. In December MacDonald will score a hat trick against Newcastle in a defeat for the Magpies at Highbury.
July 1976 – Foster’s Olympic medal
Tynesider Brendan Foster wins Britain’s only track and field medal at the Montréal Olympics with a Bronze in the 10,000 metres.
Dec 1976 – Adamson’s Sunderland
Ashington-born Jimmy Adamson succeeds fellow Northumbrian Bob Stokoe as Sunderland manager as the team struggle following their return to the First Division. Adamson, a former Burnley player (his only club as a player, where he made 426 appearances) has previously managed Burnley and Sparta Rotterdam. Adamson is now one of two Ashington-born managers at North East clubs with the other being Jack Charlton at Middlesbrough.
May 1977 – President’s visit
US President, Jimmy Carter visits the North East. His visit takes in Washington Old Hall near Sunderland and the city of Newcastle. At Newcastle, accompanied by Prime Minister, Jim Callaghan, the President is granted the Freedom of the City by Lord Mayor Hugh White before delighting an assembled crowd of some 20,000 outside Newcastle Civic Centre with the words “Howay the Lads”.
1977 – Sunderland relegated
Sunderland football club are relegated to Division Two after just one season in the first tier, following their promotion in the 1975-76 season. Manager Jimmy Adamson had been appointed in December as a successor to Bob Stokoe.
May 1977 – Neal Boro Manager
John Neal becomes manager of Middlesbrough as the successor to Jack Charlton. Born in Seaham, County Durham, Neal was previously manager of Wrexham.
1977 – Freeman Hospital
Newcastle’s Freeman Hospital is founded. It is named from a nineteenth century farmer, Patrick Freeman who once farmed the land hereabouts.
1977 – Dudley Colliery closes
Northumberland’s Dudley Colliery closes.
Nov 1977 – McGarry’s Magpies
Lancashire-born Richard Dinnis had stepped up from being assistant manager to Gordon Lee at Newcastle United in February. It followed Lee’s dismissal. Dinnis too will be dismissed this month. Stoke-born Bill McGarry, previously manager of the Saudi Arabian national side becomes Newcastle’s new manager.
1978 – Newcastle United relegated
Newcastle United, managed by Bill McGarry, are relegated to Division Two after 13 seasons in the top tier, Division One. McGarry was unable to prevent the slide towards relegation that began before his appointment.
1978 – Foster’s Commonwealth Gold
Hebburn-born athlete Brendan Foster wins the Commonwealth Games gold medal in the 10,000 metres in Edmonton, Canada. In 1976 he had been the bronze medallist at the same distance in the Olympic Games in Montreal.
1978 – Rainton Colliery closes
Rainton Colliery (Adventure Pit) near Durham closes, the Rainton area had been an important area for mining since medieval times.
1978 – Sunderland shipyards
Around 7,535 men currently work in the Sunderland shipyards.
Oct 1978 – Captain Cook Birthplace
The purpose-built Captain Cook Birthplace Museum opens at Stewart Park, Marton Middlesbrough near the site of the cottage where the famed explorer was born.
Dec-Jan 1978/79 – ‘Winter of Discontent’
The winter of 1978-1979 was characterised by numerous strikes as trade unions campaigned for better pay while Labour prime minister, James Callaghan attempted to set limits on pay rises to control inflation. Strikes across the nation included Ford car workers, lorry drivers, gravediggers, waste collectors and other public sector workers. These industrial disputes came against the backdrop of a particular severe winter. The trade unions, which are intended to ensure better pay, conditions and protection for workers had reached the height of their power and influence in the 1970s. However, the impact of the strikes on the nation will have an important effect on the outcome of the 1979 general election and call in a government that will prove to be ruthless in its dealing with the unions. The term Winter of Discontent is thought to have been first used for this period by The Sun newspaper using a phrase from the Shakespeare play Richard III.
May 3, 1979 – Margaret Thatcher PM
Conservative, Margaret Thatcher is elected as Britain’s first female Prime Minister. She is the first female government leader in Europe. Her ‘reign’ will prove divisive within the North East region most of which is solidly Labour. There is no change in the party political representation of constituencies in the North East in this general election as the political parties hold on to their North Eastern seats, with the North East mostly dominated by Labour MPs.
June 7, 1979 – Knighton’s SAFC
Yorkshire-born, Ken Knighton succeeds Billy Elliott as manager of Sunderland (Elliott had been caretaker for four games following Alan Brown’s departure). It is the first managerial appointment for Knighton, who is a former Sheffield Wednesday player.
June 17, 1979 – Ripper hoax
Police searching for a serial killer of women, known as ‘The Yorkshire Ripper’, whose murders have been carried out mostly in the West Yorkshire area, focus their investigation on Sunderland. Since March last year, letters have been received postmarked ‘Sunderland’ that claim to be from the murderer. They have been followed by a sinister audio cassette tape recording received by West Yorkshire police today, again supposedly from the murderer in which a man with a Wearside accent claims that he is ‘Jack’. The letters and tape are later identified as a sickening hoax, following the arrest of Bradford man, Peter Sutcliffe in January 1981 who is charged with thirteen murders and seven attempted murders between 1975 and 1980. The hoaxer, an alcoholic Sunderland man, called John Humble, who had diverted police resources in the investigation was eventually traced and identified through DNA and arrested in 2005. He was imprisoned following a trial.
1979 – Shipyard closures
Between 1974 and 1979, there have been five shipyard closures in the North East. There are now only eight shipyards left in the region.
July 1979 – Hylton Colliery closes
Hylton Colliery in Sunderland closes. The colliery opened in the year 1900 and is also known as Castletown Colliery. Monkwearmouth Colliery (also known as Wearmouth Colliery) remains in operation in Sunderland, a colliery that traces its origins back to 1835.
Dec 1979 – Viz launched from bedroom
The spoof comic Viz is first published by Chris Donald from the bedroom of his parents’ house in Jesmond, Newcastle, assisted by brother, Simon Donald and school friend Jim Brownlow. Based on the style of British children’s comics but with a witty adult style full of unashamed profanities and toilet humour. Over time it becomes a major success with a circulation of more than one million in the early 1990s.
1980 – Dock closes
The Tees and Hartlepool Port Authority has closed Middlesbrough Dock to commercial traffic. The Dock is scheduled for redevelopment.
Aug 11, 1980 – Metro opens
The first section of railway line for Tyneside’s Metro Rapid Transport System is officially opened. It runs from Newcastle’s Haymarket to Tynemouth. The Metro has been under construction for six years.
Sep 12, 1980 – Consett steel works close
The Consett Steel Works are closed on economic grounds. Consett iron works and the later steel works had dominated the landscape here since the works opened in 1841 and could be seen from miles around. The closure results in the loss of at least 3,000 jobs and the socio-economic impact on the town will become the subject of much media attention.
1980 – Colliery closures
1980 – Sunderland promoted
Sunderland Football Club are promoted to Division One under the management of Ken Knighton.
Sept 1980 – Arthur Cox at NUFC
Warwickshire-born Arthur Cox is the successor to Bill McGarry as Newcastle United manager after McGarry was fired due to poor results. Cox, who had been manager of Chesterfield was once the coach at Sunderland under Bob Stokoe. During his tenure as manager Cox will introduce players such as Peter Beardsley and Chris Waddle to the club and sign Kevin Keegan in 1982.
1981 – Great North Run
1981 – Colliery closures
Woodhorn Colliery near Ashington and Houghton Colliery at Houghton-le-Spring are closed. Blackhall Colliery on the southern edge of the Durham coalfield just to the north of Hartlepool is also closed.
1981 – Service sector growing
Employment in the service sector on Tyneside is now 63 per cent of the workforce.
June 1981 – Durban Sunderland manager
Welshman, Alan Durban is appointed new Sunderland AFC manager by club chairman, Tom Cowie. Durban who had been manager of Stoke City. Durban is the first Welshman to manage Sunderland.
July 1981 – Murdoch’s Middlesbrough
Scotsman Bobby Murdoch is appointed manager of Middlesbrough. A former Scottish international, he played for Celtic and Middlesbrough. Boro will be the only club he ever manages.
July 1981 – Riots across Britain
Major civil unrest comes to Britain with riots across the nation in inner cities, the most serious of those in July being in the Toxteth area of Liverpool and Moss Side area of Manchester. In both places there have been considerable rising tensions between black communities and police. The riots followed another major riot in the Brixton area of London in April. Rioting, on varying scales also spread to other towns and cities including, Derby, Nottingham, Sheffield and Newcastle upon Tyne.
Aug 1, 1981 – Video Killed the Radio Star
Video Killed the Radio Star featuring the bespectacled Hetton-born and Durham raised singer songwriter and music producer, Trevor Horn on vocals with his group The Buggles, becomes the first video to be played on the MTV channel in the United States. The theme of the song, which was released in 1979 in part reflects upon and heralds a new age of pop music and media. Horn has been described as ‘the man who invented the eighties’.
Sept 29, 1981 – Record Football Fee
Chester-le-Street born footballer Bryan Robson is signed by Manchester United from West Bromwich Albion for a record breaking fee of £1.5 million.
Nov 6, 1981 – Queen opens new bridge
Queen Elizabeth II officially opens the Queen Elizabeth II bridge across the River Tyne in Newcastle. The new bridge transports the new Tyne and Wear Metro system across the river.
April 4, 1982 – Falklands War
War breaks out in the South Atlantic between Britain and Argentina following Argentina’s invasion of the Falklands Islands on April 2nd. The islands, which are a British dependency, have long been inhabited by people of British descent. However, Argentina, calls the islands the ‘Malvinas’ and claims the islands as its own.
April 24, 1982 – Yorkshire’s Eurovision
The Eurovision Song Contest is held at the International Centre in Harrogate, North Yorkshire. Germany are the winners with the song Ein bißchen Frieden. A British venue had won the right to host the 1982 contest after British group Bucks Fizz had won the previous year’s contest in 1981 with Making Your Mind Up.
June 14, 1982 – Falklands War ends
The Falklands War comes to an end after British troops reach the islands’ main town of Port Stanley. During the conflict, which included servicemen from the North East, 649 Argentine military personnel and 255 British personnel were killed as well as three of the islanders.
July 5, 1982 – World Cup in Spain
England win their first three games in the group stage of the World Cup in Spain. A 3-1 victory over France on June 16 came with two goals from Chester-le-Street born Bryan Robson and was followed by wins over the Czech Republic and Kuwait. In the second group stage England were pitted against West Germany and hosts Spain but failed to progress with the games against both sides ending 0-0. Eventual winners were Italy who defeated West Germany in the final. The 1982 World Cup was the first time England had qualified since 1970. None of the players in the England squad were players with a North East club.
July 7, 1982 – Bobby Robson’s England
Bobby Robson has been appointed as the England football team manager as a successor to Ron Greenwood, following England’s recent exit from the World Cup. Robson was born in Sacriston in County Durham and raised in nearby Langley Park. He is himself a former England international player. As a manager Robson has already proved a success at Ipswich Town, winning an FA Cup final and a UEFA Cup final.
August 19, 1982 – Keegan signs
Footballer and England international Kevin Keegan signs for Newcastle United from Hamburger SV and will become a hugely popular figure with the Magpies fans.
1982 – Yachtsman sails the world
Newcastle-born yachtsman David Scott Cowper becomes the first man to sail solo around the world in both directions. In 1980 he became the first to do so in the easterly direction (225 days) and has now completed the same feat in the opposite direction (237 days).
1982 – Middlesbrough relegated
Middlesbrough football club are relegated to Division Two after eight seasons in the top flight of English football.
Oct 1982 – Malcolm Allison’s Boro
Colourful controversial Cockney Malcolm Allison known as ‘Big Mal’ is appointed manager of Middlesbrough Football Club as successor to Bobby Murdoch. It will be the twelfth of eighteen managerial appointments in his career, following a playing career at Charlton, West Ham and Romford.
1982 – Colliery closures
Nov 5, 1982 – The Tube
The Tube a new music television programme broadcast nationally from the studios of Tyne Tees Television in Newcastle’s City Road began broadcasting with a focus on live bands. Presenters include Jools Holland, Paula Yates, Muriel Gray and Leslie Ash. Sunderland band the Toy Dolls are first to perform live. The show ran until April 1987.
June 9, 1983 – Thatcher wins second term
The Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher retain their place in government in the 1983 general election. There have been some parliamentary boundary changes since the previous election but the general party political make-up of constituencies in the North East sees little change. However, Darlington elects a Conservative MP and Stockton South elects Social Democratic Party (SDP) candidate, Ian Wrigglesworth as its MP. The SDP, formed in 1981, fought the general election in alliance with the Liberals. One of the four key founders of this new party, the former Labour MP Bill Rodgers, loses the Stockton North seat to a Labour candidate in the election. Rodgers had represented the constituency of Stockton-on-Tees from 1962. The constituency was divided into North and South for the 1983 election. Amongst the MPs entering parliament for the first time at this election is the new Labour MP for Sedgefield, Tony Blair.
July 16, 1983 – 100th Miners’ Gala held
The 100th Durham Miners’ Gala is held in Durham City. The gala has been held every year since 1871 with the exception of the war periods 1915-1918 and 1940-45.
1983 – Colliery closures
East Hetton Colliery at Kelloe and Marley Hill Colliery close this year.
1983- World Gold for Steve Cram
Jarrow athlete Steve Cram wins the World Championship gold medal in the 1500 metres in Helsinki. Last year he won the European Championship gold in Athens and Commonwealth gold in Brisbane for the same distance.
1983 – Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
Dick Clement and Tynesider Ian La Frenais, who were previously creators and writers of Porridge and The Likely Lads score another hit as writers of a new comedy drama, Auf Wiedersehen, Pet which is first broadcast this year. The series features the antics of a group of seven British workers with a range of regional accents, employed on a building site in Germany. The three key characters are Geordie bricklayers Dennis (Tim Healy); Oz (Jimmy Nail) and Neville (Kevin Whately). Created by Norton-on-Tees born Franc Roddam from the idea of a Stockton bricklayer, a further three series would follow in 1986, 2002 and 2004, with the third series involving the fictional dismantling and sale of the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge.
1983 – Cram Sports Personality
Jarrow athlete Steve Cram is voted the BBC’s Sports Personality of the Year.
1984 – Wagon works close at Shildon
The Shildon wagon works close on economic grounds. The works had been responsible for building most of Britain’s railway freight wagons.
March 4, 1984 – Ashurst’s Sunderland
Liverpudlian Len Ashurst, a former Sunderland and Hartlepool player (who he also managed) is appointed manager of Sunderland AFC, replacing Alan Durban who was dismissed by club chairman Tom Cowie earlier this month.
Mar 12, 1984 – Miners’ strike
Mines across the country are out on strike in support of their union, protesting over colliery closures. Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher and National Union of Miners leader, Arthur Scargill, lock into a bitter, stubborn and uncompromising dispute arising from the closure of ‘uneconomic’ mines. Yet the closure of these supposedly value-less collieries is likely to have a devastating socio-economic impact on places, communities and whole regions for which coal mining is a way of life. The struggle brings economic hardship; violent battles with drafted-in police and sees communities divided in bitterness towards strike-breaking miners desperate to support families, while striking miners struggle to make ends meet, defending their jobs, communities and a way of life.
March 28, 1984 – Big Jack back at Boro
Jack Charlton agrees to return as caretaker manager of Middlesbrough FC for a brief period (9 games) following the departure of Malcolm Allison at struggling Boro. It is a favour to the Middlesbrough club chairman. Charlton steers Middlesbrough clear of relegation.
March 28, 1984 – Nissan site chosen
The former Sunderland airport site near Washington is confirmed as the site for a huge new factory for Japanese car manufacturers, Nissan.
Apr 6, 1984 – Bearpark Colliery closes
Bearpark Colliery closes. The village and its colliery are named from the former medieval park of Beaurepaire Park that once belonged to the Priors of Durham. Langley Park, another colliery village nearby, is also named from its former proximity to this park. Bearpark Colliery has been operating since 1872 and is the very heart of the large village of Bearpark that was built to serve the mine.
May 31, 1984 – Sunderland Airport closes
Sunderland Airport closes. It was situated on the site of the former RAF Usworth near Washington.
1984 – Newcastle United promoted
Newcastle United are promoted to Division One under the leadership of manager, Arthur Cox.
June 1984 – Maddren’s Middlesbrough
Billingham-born Boro legend Wilie Maddren is appointed manager of Middlesbrough. A defender who made 293 appearances for Boro, he would manage Middlesbrough until February 1986. In 1995 Maddren was diagnosed with Motor Neurone Disease and became an active campaigner raising awareness of the disease up until his death in 2000.
July 6, 1984 – Bishop doubts virgin birth
David Jenkins becomes the new Bishop of Durham. He is noted for his outspoken and controversial beliefs, including doubts over the resurrection of Christ and the Virgin birth. He is consecrated at York Minster.
July 9, 1984 – York Minster fire
A major fire destroys parts of York Minster after it is hit by lightning.
1984 – Olympic medals for NE athletes
North East athletes win medals in the Los Angeles Olympic Games. Jarrow’s Steve Cram claimed silver in the 1500 metres; Elswick Harrier’s Mike McLeod, a silver in the 10,000 metres and Ferryhill’s Charlie Spedding, a bronze in the Olympic Marathon. Spedding is also gold medal winner in the London Marathon and Houston Marathon this year.
Aug 14, 1984 – Big Jack Magpies manager
Jack Charlton succeeds Arthur Cox, who has departed to join Derby County, as manager of Newcastle United. Earlier this year Charlton had briefly managed Middlesbrough, preventing Boro’s relegation at the end of last season.
1984 – World’s most beautiful building
In celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects, a panel of 50 architectural experts vote Durham Cathedral the most beautiful building in the world.
Oct 1, 1984 – Bishop a government critic
New bishop of Durham, David Jenkins becomes vocal in his support for striking miners. He is critical of the government and the provocative Ian McGregor, an American appointed by the government as head of the National Coal Board. Many miners, including those in Durham have long distrusted the Church of England, considering it part of the ‘Establishment’ but they are endeared by Jenkins’ support. The government and church are not comfortable with Bishop Jenkins’ outspoken views.
1985 – Colliery closures
May 1985 – Money for Nothing
The Brothers in Arms album released this month by rock band Dire Straits is one of the first albums released on a Compact Disc (CD) and becomes the first ever album to sell over a million copies in the CD format. A track from the CD, Money for Nothing featuring the lyrics of Tyneside’s Dire Straits frontman, Mark Knopfler is the number one single in the United States for three weeks. The single features the vocals of Knopfler and fellow Tynesider Sting singing the additional words “I want my MTV”. In 1987 it will become the first video to be played on MTV Europe.
May 1985 – Sunderland down
Sunderland Football Club are relegated from the first tier of English football to Division Two after only five seasons in Division One.
June 1985 – SAFC McMenemy manager
Gateshead-born Lawrie McMenemy is appointed manager of Sunderland AFC by chairman Tom Cowie. He replaces Len Ashurst who was dismissed in May, under whom Sunderland were relegated. McMenemy’s appointment creates much excitement on Wearside. He was once the manager of Bishop Auckland FC and is considered a big-name manager and high profile figure. As manager of Southampton whom he left to join Sunderland, he won the FA Cup (in 1976 as a Second Division side); secured promotion for Southampton in 1978 and reached the League Cup final as well as finishing Division One runners up in 1983-84. Given his Southampton legacy there are big expectations from the Sunderland fans. At Sunderland he becomes the highest paid manager in English football, with his salary even drawing the attention of prime minister, Mrs Thatcher.
Aug 10, 1985 – McFaul at NUFC
Jack Charlton resigns as manager of Newcastle United and is succeeded by Willie McFaul, the Northern Irish, former goalkeeper for the Magpies. One reason for Charlton’s departure may be criticism for his failure to sign County Durham-born striker Eric Gates who instead signed for Lawrie McMenemy’s Sunderland.
Feb 1986 – Rioch’s Boro
Former Scottish international Bruce Rioch is appointed manager of Middlesbrough as successor to the dismissed Willie Maddren. Rioch had previously been manager of Seattle Storm in the United States.
April 1, 1986 – Tyne and Wear abolished
The Newcastle-based county of Tyne and Wear, created in 1974, is abolished and divided into the five unitary authorities of Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Gateshead, South Tyneside and Sunderland. However, the term ‘Tyne and Wear’ persists and has become deeply rooted in little more than a decade, despite centuries of traditional county boundaries. Tyne and Wear continues to be used as a term in relation to certain cultural features and services such as the Metro system and museums service. The title Lord Lieutenant of Tyne and Wear is also retained. A Lord Lieutenant is the representative of the monarch, usually within a traditional historic county boundary, so that in ceremonial terms at least, the county of Tyne and Wear continues to exist.
1986 – Tees is number three
The port of Tees is the third largest port in the UK in terms of tonnage shipped.
1986 – Middlesbrough relegated
Middlesbrough FC are relegated from the second tier to Division Three.
June 22, 1986 – ‘Hand of God’ at World Cup
The 1986 World Cup ends for England with a 2-1 defeat to Argentina in Mexico. Both Argentina goals came from Diego Maradona, the first goal described by the player as ‘the hand of god’ which he covertly nudged in to the net with a hand, the second an exceptional goal in which Argentina took the lead once again, England having equalised. Having passed the group stage England had defeated Paraguay 3-0 in the first round of the knock out stage which included a goal from Peter Beardsley but Argentina, the eventual winners proved more challenging opponents. As well as Beardsley (then a Newcastle United player), other players in the England squad for the tournament from the North East included Chris Waddle, Bryan Robson, Dawdon-born Terry Fenwick and Berwick-born Trevor Steven. Beardsley was the only representative from a North East club side.
1986 – Colliery closures
1986 – More medals for Cram
At the Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh, Jarrow athlete Steve Cram wins gold in the 1500 metres and 800 metres. Cram will also claim a European Championship gold in the 1500 metres in Stuttgart and a European Championship bronze in the 800 metres.
Sept 1986 – Nissan car plant opens
Nissan becomes the first Japanese company to open a factory in Britain when it establishes a car plant between Washington and Sunderland, partly occupying the former RAF Usworth site. A Nissan Bluebird will be the first car off the production line. It will go on to be displayed at Sunderland’s museum.
Oct 14, 1986 – Metrocentre opens
The first stage of Europe’s largest shopping and leisure complex (the Red Mall) is opened at Swalwell near Gateshead. It is the creation of the North East Ashington-born entrepreneur and developer, John Hall.
Dec 29, 1986 – Earl of Stockton
Former Prime Minister, Hardold Macmillan has died at the age of 92. Titled the Earl of Stockton, Macmillan had once been the MP for Stockton-on-Tees.
1987 – World Heritage site
1987 – Gateshead Civic Centre complete
The red brick Gateshead Civic Centre, started in 1978 is complete.
1987 – Ship restored
The restoration of HMS Warrior is completed at Hartlepool.
1987 – Development Corporations
Two new development corporations, Teesside Development Corporation and Tyne and Wear Development Corporation are established. They invest millions of pounds into developing the region’s two major urban areas.
April 1987 – McMenemy quits
Lawrie McMenemy quits as Sunderland AFC manager after 90 games in charge as his side plummet towards likely relegation following a run of poor results. In his previous season with Sunderland, the club had already narrowly escaped relegation.
1987 – Middlesbrough promoted
Middlesbrough FC are promoted from Division Three to Division Two.
1987 – Sunderland relegated
Sunderland are relegated from the second tier of the Football League to Division Three for the first time in their history. Manager Lawrie McMenemy had recently quit as the club plummeted towards relegation. The appointment of Wearside hero, Bob Stokoe, who was brought in as a caretaker manager in a last life attempt to save the club from relegation is not enough.
1987 – Shipyard closures
The 15,000 tonne North Islands was launched on October 15, 1986, and it enters history as the last ship ever to be launched on the Tees at Smiths Dock, South Bank, as the shipyard is closing with the loss of 1,295 jobs. The Smiths Dock firm can trace its origins back to the early nineteenth century and was originally located at North Shields.
1987 – Sunderland shipbuilders
Around 4,337 men now work in the Sunderland shipyards. Since the 1780s over 8,000 ships have been built on the River Wear at Sunderland.
June 9, 1987 – Smith’s SAFC
Stoke-born, Denis Smith, the manager of York City, is appointed as new Sunderland AFC manager. He is the first manager to take charge of Sunderland as a third tier club, following their recent relegation to the Third Division.
June 11, 1987 – Thatcher wins third term
The Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher win a third general election in a row. It is the first time this has been achieved under the same leader since 1820. Most of the North East still remains solidly Labour and there is little change in the political representation of constituencies in the region since the 1983 election except that Stockton South is now Conservative and Newcastle Central is regained by Labour.
Sep 1987 – ‘Walk in the wilderness’
A black and white photograph is taken of Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher carrying a handbag and walking through the empty industrial landscape of the former Head Wrightson engineering works at Thornaby on her visit to Teesside. The ‘walk in the wilderness’ as it comes to be known is one of the most enduring and symbolic political images of the era. Some saw it as symbolic of Conservative party destruction of traditional industries; others, including Mrs Thatcher herself, saw it as symbolic of the need for change.
Nov 1, 1987 – World’s fastest diesel train
An Inter City 125 becomes the fastest diesel train in the world after recording a speed of 148.5 mph (239.9 km/h) between Darlington and York.
1988 – Boro and Sunderland up
Middlesbrough FC are promoted from Division Two to Division One, having just been promoted from Division Three the previous season. Sunderland are promoted from Division Three to Division Two after one season in the third tier.
1988 – Ashington Colliery closes
Ashington Colliery in Northumberland closes. Ashington, often described as the ‘world’s largest pit village’ no longer has a colliery. The nearby Woodhorn Colliery had already closed in 1981.
1988 – Seaham Colliery closes
Seaham Colliery in the coastal County Durham town of Seaham Harbour is closed. Two collieries: Vane Tempest and Dawdon Colliery, continue to operate in the town. Last year Whittle Colliery near Shilbottle in Northumberland was closed.
Dec 14, 1988 – Smith’s NUFC
Jim Smith is appointed the new manager of Newcastle United FC. Willie McFaul had been sacked by the club in October and the Chester-le-Street-born former Sunderland and Newcastle player Colin Suggett had served as caretaker for nine games. Sheffield-born Smith leaves his position as manager at London club QPR to join the Magpies. Newcastle United are under the control of a new Chairman, Gordon McKeag, but there are boardroom battles behind the scenes.
Dec 21, 1988 – Lockerbie bomb
Following the detonation of a terrorist bomb, with links to Libya, a Boeing 747, Pan American Airways flight 103 exploded high above the town of Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway in the Scottish Borders. All 250 people on board were killed along with eleven on the ground in Lockerbie itself. The flight, which originated in Frankfurt in Germany included a stopover at Heathrow Airport and was heading for a further stopover at JFK Airport in New York with the ultimate destination being Detroit. Of those killed on board the flight, 190 including some crew members were United States citizens and 31 were British with a further 37 passengers and crew from a wide range of nations across the world. A further 11 Lockerbie residents were killed on the ground in one street.
Dec, 1988 – Driving Home for Christmas
Middlesbrough singer-songwriter Chris Rea’s single Driving Home for Christmas is released and will become a perennial Christmas time hit. The song was written in 1978 by Rea on a journey from London to his home town of Middlesbrough but was not released until 1988.
May 1989 – First man to walk to both poles
Explorer, Robert Swan, who is Teesdale-born and raised becomes the first man to walk to both poles. This month he and his team reached the North Pole. In January 1986 Swan had completed the 900 mile walk to the South Pole.
1989 – Magpies and Boro relegated
Middlesbrough and Newcastle United football clubs are relegated from Division One to Division Two. With Sunderland already in Division Two it leaves the top tier of English football without representation from the North East. Middlesbrough had only been promoted last year while Newcastle United have been playing in Division One for five consecutive seasons.
1989 – Northumbrian Water privatised
The government’s privatisation of the water industry leads to the formation of the Northumbrian Water Group from the former public sector-based Northumbrian Water Authority that serves most of the region.
1989 – Sunderland shipbuilding ends
Shipbuilding ends in Sunderland with the launch of the last ship on the Wear. It was launched by North East Shipbuilders, a firm recently formed from a merger of Sunderland Shipbuilders Ltd (a successor to William Doxford & Sons) with Austin & Pickersgill. It brings an end to shipbuilding in a place that was once described as ‘the largest shipbuilding town in the world’. There have been seven shipyard closures across the region in the 1980s and in 1989 only one now remains: the Swan Hunter Yard on the Tyne at Wallsend.
1989 – Byker Grove
A popular teen TV drama set in a Newcastle youth club begins its first series this year on CBBC. Byker Grove (actually filmed in Benwell rather than Byker) will boost or launch the careers of several North East actors including young actors Ant McPartlin and Declan Donnelly who respectively play the characters PJ and Duncan. Dec featured in series one with Ant joining the cast for series two in 1990. The drama will run until 2006. Later, as a TV presenting duo, Ant and Dec will become a mainstay of prime-time light entertainment on British TV.