The North East 1920-1938

North East England 1920-1938

Coal-mining reached a peak in 1923 with 170,000 miners employed in the Durham coalfield alone but many industries in the North East experienced hard times in the 1920s and 1930s. Demand for industrial products was fading and the Great War had provided only a temporary boost. In 1926 places like Middlesbrough had unemployment rates of 45 per cent. A worse situation was found at Jarrow in 1936 with 80 per cent unemployment. The men of that town set out on their famous hunger march to London. However, other industries still had their part to play. One of the North East’s great achievements of this era was the building of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in Australia and the similar iconic landmark of the Tyne Bridge. New industries like plastics at Billingham were also beginning to emerge.

👈 1901-1919 | Timeline1939-1949 👉

The Jarrow March
The Jarrow March

1920 – Public transport

Since 1900 new forms of public transport have become common place throughout the region. Motor buses and trams now serve the major North East towns.

April 1920 – Howie Boro manager

Scotsman, James Howie, who has been manager of London side Queens Park Rangers, becomes manager of Middlesbrough. During his playing career, Howie made 198 appearances for Newcastle United. Howie succeeds Thomas McIntosh, who left Boro in December 1919 to manage Everton.

1920 – Walker Colliery closes

Walker Colliery near Newcastle closes. Coal has been mined there since at least the 1760s.  Andrews House Colliery near Tanfield and Edmondsley Colliery, both in County Durham also close this year.

1920 – Seal Sands

The Tees Conservancy Act instigates the extensive reclamation of Seal Sands at the mouth of the Tees.

1921 – Colliery closures

Blaydon Main Colliery on Tyneside; West Pelton Colliery near Chester-le-Street and Hunwick Colliery near Crook close this year.

Nov 15, 1922 – Election : Liberals third

The Conservative party under Andrew Bonar Law secure a majority in the general election which for the first time sees the Liberals pushed into third place in British politics. It brings an end to the term of Liberal Prime Minister, David Lloyd George who had led a coalition government of National Liberals and Conservatives since 1918. In 1922 the Liberal party’s only gain in the region is from the Conservatives in Hartlepool (‘the Hartlepools’) though the Liberals retain the seat of Middlesbrough West. However, the Liberals lose the seat of Middlesbrough East to the Conservatives. Since the 1918 election, the Liberal movement has been divided between the Liberal party and the National Liberal party which supports coalition. A candidate for the National Liberal party gains the seat of Berwick upon Tweed from the Liberals in this 1922 election but the National Liberals lose the seat of South Shields to a Liberal party candidate. The seats of Blaydon, Jarrow, Newcastle East and Newcastle West all switch from National Liberal to Labour and the seats of Spennymoor, Seaham and Consett switch from Liberal to Labour. The National Liberals hold on to the seat of Stockton-on-Tees.

Market Cross, Barnard Castle
Barnard Castle : there was a Conservative gain from Labour in the Barnard Castle constituency in 1922 but there were many gains for Labour in the region and some significant losses for the Liberal party © David Simpson

Nov 15, 1922 – Labour dominate region

The Labour party had already gained significant ground in the region in the election of 1918, building on the earlier election of 1910. In 1922 they became the dominant party in the North East for the first time. In addition to the seats gained from the Liberals and National Liberals (see above), Labour hold on to the seats of Bishop Auckland, Chester-le-Street, Houghton-le-Spring and Morpeth which they had secured in the 1918 election, although they lose Barnard Castle to the Conservatives. Labour also gain the previously held Conservative seats of Gateshead, Sedgefield, Durham and Newcastle Central. The seat of Wallsend, held by a ‘Coalition Labour’ candidate in 1918 is now also Labour.

Nov 15, 1922 – Conservative holds

The Conservatives hold on to the seats of Hexham, Newcastle North, Cleveland, Darlington and one of the Sunderland constituencies. A second Sunderland constituency,  previously held by the National Liberals also elects a Conservative MP.

1923 – Coal mining peak

Coal-mining reaches a peak in County Durham, employing around 170,000 miners.

1923 – Witton Park Colliery closes

Witton Park Colliery near Bishop Auckland closes.

Witton Park.
The village of Witton Park was noted for coal mining and an iron works © David Simpson

1923 – Ammonia making at Billingham

The first manufacture of ammonia in Britain is undertaken at Billingham by Brunner Mond. The ammonia will be used in the production of ammonium sulphate fertilisers. The chemical works at Billingham will become part of the newly-formed Imperial Chemical Works Company (ICI).

ICI Billingham.
ICI Billingham, pictured from the Ferryhill area of County Durham © David Simpson. 2018

August, 1923 – Bamlett Boro manager

Gateshead-born Herbert Bamlett, a former referee, becomes manager of Middlesbrough FC. He will later move on to Manchester United in 1927. Bamlett is the successor to Scotsman James Howie at Boro, who was in turn successor to Sedgefield-born Thomas McIntosh in 1920.

Dec 6, 1923 – Another general election

Conservative Prime Minister, Andrew Bonar Law resigned in May after falling ill. His replacement, the Chancellor Stanley Baldwin calls a general election, ostensibly, to secure the country’s mandate for his leadership. It is a little over a year since the previous election and the Conservatives win the most seats but the combination of Ramsay MacDonald’s Labour seats and Herbert Asquith’s reunited Liberal party seats result in a hung parliament. Labour still maintained a significant hold in the North East in this election and Barnard Castle switches from Conservative to Labour. In the region, only the Sedgefield constituency switches from Labour to Conservative but Labour lose the Newcastle East, Newcastle West and Gateshead seats to the Liberals. The constituency of Middlesbrough East switches from Conservative to Liberal. Stockton-on-Tees, previously ‘National Liberal’ is now Liberal as the previously divided Liberal party is now united.

April 26, 1924 – Magpies win Cup

Newcastle United Football Club reach the FA Cup final for the sixth time in their history, defeating Aston Villa 2-0 at Wembley, in front of a rain-drenched crowd of over 91,000.  Newcastle’s two goals come late in the game, from Scottish-born Neil Harris and County Durham’s Kelloe-born Stan Seymour in the 83rd and 85th minute. It is the second time in their history that Newcastle have won the FA Cup but this is their first appearance and victory in a Wembley final. Their previous cup win, in 1910, was played at Crystal Palace and followed by a replay at Goodison Park, Liverpool. Newcastle United have been managed by the Scottish-born, Frank Watt since 1892.

Newcastle United’s Stan Seymour

1924 – Boro relegated

Middlesbrough Football club are relegated from the first tier of English football to Division Two for the first time after playing in Division One for eighteen seasons since their promotion in 1902. There were of course no Football League games during the First World War.

1924 – Saltburn pier struck by ship

The 1,400 ft long Saltburn pier is struck by a ship called The Ovenberg during severe storms permanently shortening the pier.

Saltburn Pier
Saltburn Pier © David Simpson

1924 – Durham City collieries close

Durham Main (Crook Hall); Framwellgate Moor; Dryburn Grange (Caterhouse); Kepier Grange and Brasside collieries, all in Durham City are closed. Other collieries closing this year included Windlestone near Ferryhill and Shildon Colliery in County Durham. West Denton Colliery near Newcastle closed this year, coal having been mined in that area since at least the 1760s.

Oct 29, 1924 – Yet another election

In January Labour party leader Ramsay MacDonald had formed a minority government as Prime Minister with some support from the Liberal party. Following a vote of no confidence in his government another general election is held in which the Conservatives under Stanley Baldwin secure a majority. In the North East Labour gain seats in Gateshead, Newcastle East, Newcastle West and Middlesbrough East from the Liberals but lose Barnard Castle to the Conservatives. The Liberals lose the seats of Stockton-on-Tees, the Hartlepools, Hexham and Cleveland to the Conservatives.

Hexham Abbey
Hexham © David Simpson

Mar 30, 1925 – Scotswood disaster

Thirty-eight lives are lost in a mine disaster at the Montagu Colliery at Scotswood near Newcastle after an inrush of water flooded the mine from the old Paradise pit.

1925 – Colliery closures

The Adelaide Colliery at Bishop Auckland closes. It was one of the collieries owned by Pease & Partners. Trimdon Colliery, which opened in the 1840s also closes as does Sunniside Colliery near Tow Law, which dates to 1867.

1925 – Hatton Gallery

The King Edward VII School at Armstrong College (part of Durham University and later Newcastle University) establishes the Hatton Gallery in Newcastle upon Tyne.

1925 – Royal Tweed Bridge

The Royal Tweed Bridge is built at Berwick.

The Royal Tweed Bridge, Berwick
The Royal Tweed Bridge, Berwick © David Simpson

1926 – General Strike

The General Strike brings industrial activity to a halt throughout the country. Miners are among those striking this year over wages and working hours. Male unemployment is high throughout the region (in Middlesbrough it is 45 per cent) particularly when compared to the national average of 14 per cent.

1926 – Soviet flag

During the General Strike, a local council office at Chopwell near Gateshead raised the Soviet flag of Russia in place of the Union Jack, reflecting their Communist leanings. The village is still home to a Marx and Lenin Terrace.

Marx Terrace, Chopwell
Marx Terrace, Chopwell © David Simpson

1926 – Colliery closures

Collieries closing this year included Friar’s Goose or ‘Tyne Main’ Colliery near Gateshead (which had operated since 1798); Waldridge Colliery near Chester-le-Street; St. Helen’s Colliery at St Helen’s Auckland; West Bitchburn Colliery near Howden-le-Wear; Cold Knott Colliery near Crook; Bebside (Horton Grange) near Blyth and Stublick Colliery near Langley in South Tynedale.

1926 – ICI

Britain’s four biggest chemical manufacturers including Brunner Mond merge to form Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd (ICI). The company will become a major influence in the Teesside town of Billingham.

1927 – City Hall

Newcastle’s City Hall opens, nearby developments also include the city baths.

City Baths and City Hall
Northumberland Baths and City Baths (left and centre) and City Hall to the right © David Simpson

1927 – Newcastle United Champions

Newcastle United become champions in the highest tier of English football, winning the First Division title with 56 points (there are 22 teams with two points for a win and one point for a draw). It is the fourth time they have won the title, all under the guidance of their Scottish-born manager, Frank Watt. Third-placed Sunderland finished on 49 points behind runners up Huddersfield Town on 51 points.

1927 – Boro promoted

Middlesbrough Football Club are promoted as champions of the Second Division. Middlesbrough forward George Camsell (born Framwellgate Moor), is the top scorer in the Second Division with an astonishing 59 goals that include nine hat-tricks. Middlesbrough recently appointed (in April) Peter McWilliam as their manager. McWilliam, a Scot had been the Tottenham Hotspur manager and was previously a star player with Newcastle United. He is Boro’s ninth manager, succeeding Herbert Bamlett, and the fifth Scot to manage the club.

George Camsell

1927 – Colliery closures

Collieries closing this year included Redheugh near Gateshead (which opened in 1872) on Tyneside. Also closing this year were Blackett Colliery near Haltwhistle; Chirm Colliery near Longhorsley and Fourstones Colliery near Hexham, all in Northumberland. County Durham collieries that closed included South Pontop near Annfield Plain; Carterthorne near Evenwood and Merrington Park Colliery (North Close) near Spennymoor.

1927 – Lucozade invented in Newcastle

Newcastle chemist, William Owen, based in the Barras Bridge area of the city invents the drink Lucozade which he initially calls Glucozade. The name is changed to Lucozade in 1929.

1928 – Anhydrite mined

Anhydrite, also known as dry gypsum, is used in the production of fertilisers. A 700ft deep anhydride mine now operates beneath Billingham. It consists of miles of grid-like subterranean streets.

1928 – Colliery closures

Collieries closing this year included Blackfield at Tow Law; Abbots Close at Crook and Merrington Colliery also known as ‘Spennymoor Pit’.

1928 – Armstrong Vickers merge

Armstrong’s factory at Elswick on Tyneside is forced to merge with Vickers of Sheffield. The factory has been unable to diversify since the end of the war.

Armstrong Factory Site
Looking across the Tyne to the Armstrong Factory Site © David Simpson

1928 – Derwenthaugh Coke Works open

The Derwenthaugh Coke Works open near the banks of the River Derwent and Tyne near Blaydon.

1928 – Boro relegated

Middlesbrough Football Club are relegated from Division One after only one season in the top tier.

1928 – Cochrane Sunderland manager

Scotsman, Johnny Cochrane (born Paisley) becomes Sunderland AFC’s fifth manager. He succeeds Northern Irishman, Bob Kyle who has managed Sunderland for 817 games (still a club record). Kyle had been the Sunderland manager since August 1905. Cochrane will himself manage Sunderland for 500 games.

1928 – Flying Scotsman

The Flying Scotsman locomotive service begins operating on the LNER London-Edinburgh route.

1928 – The Tyne Bridge

The Tyne Bridge is built linking Newcastle and Gateshead by Dorman Long of Middlesbrough and is opened on October 10 by George V. In fact its official name is the George V Bridge.

Tyne Bridge
The Tyne Bridge, Newcastle pictured from the Swing Bridge © David Simpson

1929 – Wearmouth Bridge

A new bridge is built across the River Wear in Sunderland. It is designed by Mott, Hay & Anderson.

Wearmouth Bridge
The present Wearmouth Bridge with the railway bridge to the rear © David Simpson.

1929 – Domestos invented at Byker

William Handley, a chemist develops the household cleaner Domestos in his garden shed at Byker. He had purchased Sodium Hypochlorite from the chemical works at Billingham to use in its manufacture.

May 1929 – North East Coast Exhibition

The North East Coast Exhibition is held from May to October, 1929 at what will be called Exhibition Park in Newcastle. It showcases North East industry and enterprise.

May 30, 1929 – Seaham MP is the PM

A general election is held which results in a hung parliament. The Labour party leader, Ramsay MacDonald, a Scotsman, represents the safe Labour seat of Seaham Harbour. MacDonald forms a minority government as Prime Minister at the beginning of June. Barnard Castle, Sedgefield, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees, Darlington and the two Sunderland constituencies are among the seats taken by Labour while Newcastle East, previously a Labour seat, is won by the Liberals. Women aged from 21-29 had been allowed to vote in this election for the first time. In 1918, when women first received the vote, it only applied to women who were 30 and over.

Harbour at Seaham viewed from the north
Seaham Harbour. The parliamentary constituency of this name, which covered much of east Durham was the seat of Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald © David Simpson

1929 – Boro bounce back

Middlesbrough Football Club under manager Peter McWilliam are promoted back into Division One following last season’s relegation from the top tier league.

1929 – Industrial Merger

Dorman Long of Middlesbrough absorbs neighbouring industrial giant Bolckow and Vaughan.

1929 – Colliery closures

Collieries closing this year included Clifton near Morpeth; Hedley Hill near Tow Law; Craig Lea, near Harperley (Crook) and Preston Colliery at North Shields.

Sept-Nov, 1929 – Wall Street Crash

A Stock market crash in the United States will signal the beginning of an economic depression ‘The Great Depression’ that will spread to Britain and other parts of the world during the 1930s. Industrial regions like the North East which are still recovering from the after-effects of the First World War will suffer greatly.

Jan 1930 – NUFC’s second manager

Scotsman, Andy Cunningham becomes Newcastle United’s second manager ever, after succeeding retired manager and fellow Scot, Frank Watt, who has managed the club since 1892 for a staggering club record of 1,264 games. In his time as manager, Watt won four league titles and two FA Cups. New manager Cunningham will initially be a player manager at Newcastle United for whom he signed in 1928. Cunningham made his debut as a player for the club when he was thirty-eight years old.

1930 – Shipyard closures

Nineteen shipyard closures in the region in the last decade result in the loss of thousands of jobs and contribute to heavy unemployment throughout the region.

Statue of Charles Mark Palmer, Jarrow
Statue of  shipyard owner, Charles Mark Palmer, Jarrow © David Simpson

1930 – Colliery closures

Colliery closures this year included Bowden Close at Helmington Row near Crook (opened in 1845); and East Pontop near Annfield Plain.

July 2, 1930 – Constantine College

Constantine Technical College is established in a purpose built building in Middlesbrough’s Borough Road. It is funded by a bequest made by shipping magnate, Joseph Constantine in 1916. The college, which was opened by Edward Prince of Wales (later, briefly Edward VIII) will grow and evolve and later become the foundation of Teesside Polytechnic in 1969 and later Teesside University in 1992.

Aug 2, 1930 – Riot at South Shields

A riot breaks out in South Shields in the Mill Dam area between British sailors and the Yemeni seamen community in the town which numbers over a thousand. During the riot, which spread to the nearby Holburn area where many of the Yemeni reside, a policeman was stabbed. Some members of the Yemeni Arab community will later be deported. Yemeni seamen and their families have lived in South Shields since the 1860s and there has generally been a peaceful co-existence, though trouble did break out in 1919 during the similar economic difficulties of that time. It seems that the Yemeni community have been scapegoated for the struggles of the recession. The port of Aden in the Yemen is under British colonial rule where it is governed as part of British India. Some members of the South Shields Yemeni community served for Britain during the First World War as they will do in the Second World War

1931 – Jarrow unemployment

About 80 per cent of Jarrow’s workforce is unemployed. This is partly because of a slump in demand caused by the end of the war, and the huge number of unemployed men returning from military service as well as the economic challenges of the Great Depression.

1931 – Cowboy Earl

George Montagu Bennet, seventh Earl of Tankerville dies at Chillingham Castle. Known as the ‘Singing Earl’, he had been a Christian Revival Baptist singer, circus clown and a cowboy in America.

Chillingham Castle
Chillingham Castle © David Simpson

Oct 27, 1931 – National Government

A challenging budgetary crisis in August caused by the Great Depression and differences of opinion within the minority Labour government causes Prime Minister and Seaham MP, Ramsay MacDonald to offer his resignation. He is persuaded to remain as Prime Minister by the king who encourages MacDonald to stay on as leader and form an all-party ‘National Government’. A general election is held in which the National candidates conclusively win with MacDonald continuing as Prime Minister. Some Labour party members are uncomfortable with MacDonald’s alliance with rival parties.

1931 – Felling Colliery Closes

Felling Colliery near Gateshead (opened 1779) also known as ‘Brandling Main’, closed this year. It was the site of the mine explosion of 1812 that claimed 92 lives. The event spurred on the development of the miners’ safety lamp. Other closures in 1931 included Mount Moor Colliery at Springwell near Gateshead which had opened before 1826; Byers Green Colliery (1841) near Spennymoor; Page Bank Colliery near Spennymoor; Ludworth Colliery near Durham (1837); Longframlington Colliery in Northumberland and Ridsdale Colliery in Redesdale.

Felling Colliery
Old postcard showing Felling Colliery

Feb 9, 1932 – Shrove Tuesday football ends

Chester-le-Street’s anarchic annual Shrove Tuesday football game is played for the last time due to the damage to shops in the main street, which hosts the game. The event is thought to have medieval roots. A similar tradition continues at Sedgefield and Alnwick.

Shrove Tuesday football Chester-le-Street
Ball in the Burn, Shrove Tuesday football at Chester-le-Street

Apr 23, 1932 – Magpies win FA Cup

Newcastle United Football Club, under manager, Andy Cunningham, win the FA Cup final at Wembley, defeating Arsenal 2-1 in front of a crowd of 92,298. Arsenal take the lead in the first half but Newcastle reply in the 38th minute with a goal from their home town forward, the Newburn-born, Jack Allen. Allen would follow this up with a winning goal in the 72nd minute.  This is Newcastle’s seventh appearance in an FA Cup final and the third time they have won it.

June 19, 1932 – Palmer launches last ship

The Palmer Shipyard launches its last ship at JarrowHMS Duchess.

1932 – Art Deco Co-op

The huge Art Deco style co-op building opens in Newgate Street in Newcastle upon Tyne designed by the CWS architect L.G Ekins who also undertook work in Manchester.

Art Deco co-op building (1932) by L.G Ekins in Newgate Street, Newcastle
Art Deco co-op building (1932) by L.G Ekins in Newgate Street, Newcastle © David Simpson

1932 – Sydney Harbour Bridge

The Sydney Harbour Bridge is completed by Dorman Long of Middlesbrough, the bridge was in fact commenced before the similar Tyne Bridge at Newcastle.

1932 – Ravensworth Castle demolished

The impressive Ravensworth Castle near Gateshead is demolished.

Ravensworth Castle
Ravensworth Castle (demolished in 1932) once dominated  the Team valley

1932 – 5,000 workers at Billingham

5,000 are employed by the chemical industry at Billingham.

1932 – Colliery closures

Bewicke Main Colliery near Birtley has closed. It was once owned by a man called Perkins from whom nearby Perkinsville was named. Blackhouse Colliery or Wash Houses Pit also at Birtley closes this year. Nearby, towards Washington, Springwell Colliery which dates back to 1826 closes. Other colliery closures are Eldon Colliery or ‘South Durham Colliery’ near Shildon; Willington (Sunnybrow) Colliery near Crook; Hebburn Colliery on Tyneside and Plenmeller Colliery near Haltwhistle in Northumberland.

Mar 8, 1933 – Over 70,000 at Derby game

A Wednesday evening football crowd of 75,118 turn up to watch Sunderland play Derby County in the Sixth Round replay of the FA Cup at Sunderland’s Roker Park ground. With the stadium full and the crowd growing restless and spilling onto the pitch, the kick off was brought forward by quarter of an hour. Thousands were locked outside. Sunderland lose 1-0 leaving only the gate receipts as a cause for celebration. It is the biggest attendance at a football match in North East England and will for a long time be England’s biggest attendance for a mid week game (eclipsed by London side Tottenham Hotspur’s tenancy of Wembley Stadium for UEFA cup matches in 2016).

1933 – Hebburn workforce reduced

Hawthorn Leslie has reduced its workforce at Hebburn by about a fifth over the last two years. It now employs around 1,000 people. Many industrial firms have had to take similar actions. This year also saw the closure of Hebburn Colliery which dates back to 1792.

1933 – Shipyard closures

There were six shipyard closures in the region from 1931 to 1933 further increasing unemployment.

Sep 10, 1933 – Battle of Stockton

A riot broke out in Stockton-on-Tees between members of the British Union of Fascists (BUF) and their opponents who are the members of the Communist Party and the National Unemployed Workers Movement. Taking place in Stockton High Street near the Market Cross (where the Communists had been banned from holding meetings), the Fascists had organised a meeting here to drum up support, bringing with them contingents from Tyneside and Manchester. The Fascists were heckled by some members of the crowd which numbered 3,000. When the police escorted the Fascists back to their buses some of their members began attacking people in the crowd. A riot ensued and at one point the anti-Fascists captured a member of the rival group and attempted to throw him in the River Tees before others intervened for his protection. The BUF have been hoping to recruit new members on Teesside attempting to capitalise on the widespread discontent associated with high levels of unemployment and economic recession.

Stockton Town Hall and Market Cross
Stockton Town Hall and Market Cross in Stockton High Street © David Simpson

1933– Colliery closures

Collieries closing this year were East Stanley Colliery near Stanley and the Black Prince Colliery at Tow Law (opened 1846) both in County Durham and Bullocks Hall Colliery near Chevington, Northumberland.

Feb 28, 1934 – Bridge opening

The Duke and Duchess of York open the Newport Lifting Bridge across the River Tees on Teesside. It has been built by Dorman Long.

Newport Bridge, Middlesbrough
Newport Bridge, Middlesbrough © David Simpson

1934 – Newcastle Museum

The Municipal Museum of Science and Industry is established featuring many exhibits from the North East Coast Exhibition of 1929. It will later be known as the Discovery Museum.

Discovery Museum
Discovery Museum, Newcastle, the museum occupies a former nineteenth century Co-operative wholesale building © David Simpson

March 1934 – Gillow Boro manager

Lancashire-born Wilf Gillow becomes the tenth manager in Middlesbrough Football Club’s history. He had previously managed Grimsby Town. Gillow succeeds Scotsman, Peter McWilliam who managed the club for 328games. Gillow will himself manage Boro for 236 games.

May 1934 – Newcastle United down

Newcastle United are relegated after 32 seasons in Division One. It is their first ever relegation since joining the Football League in 1893 and will subsequently see the departure of manager, Andy Cunningham after 251 games in charge. The relegation came despite two big results in the festive season in which the club defeated Everton 7-3 at Goodison Park on Boxing Day and Liverpool 9-2 at St James’ Park on New Year’s Day.

1934 – Pitmen painters

A group of miners in Ashington with a passion for painting attend painting classes and show extraordinary talent for portraying their environment. They come to be known as the Ashington Group. Some of their work can be seen at the Woodhorn museum.

Sep 1934 – Farewell Mauretania

The famed ship, RMS Mauretania built at Wallsend in 1906 makes her last journey. Heading from New York to Southampton, her fittings are sold off before she heads for Rosyth in Scotland for breaking up.

1934 – Colliery closures

Colliery closures this year include Earsdon Colliery near Whitley Bay; Frankland Colliery near Durham City; Gunnerton Colliery near Chollerton; Hargill Colliery near Witton-le-Wear; Longhirst Colliery near Ashington and Tindale (Woodhouse Close) Colliery near Bishop Auckland.

1935 – Plastics

A new chemical plant at Billingham makes oil and petrol from creosote and coal through a process called hydrogenation. The production of plastics was established last year.

June 1935 – NUFC’s first English manager

Stoke City manager Tom Mather, who was born in Chorley in north west England becomes Newcastle United Football Club’s first English-born manager. Mather, who had previously managed Southend United and Bolton Wanderers as well as Stoke, is only Newcastle United’s third manager in history. His predecessors, Andy Cunningham and Frank Watt were both Scots.

1935 – Colliery closures

Collieries closing this year include Sherburn House near Durham; Moorsley near Hetton; North Biddick near Washington and Tudhoe near Spennymoor all in County Durham and Plashetts Colliery in North Tynedale, Northumberland. In later times the site of the Plashetts colliery and its associated village will disappear. They are somewhere deep below the waters of Kielder reservoir.

1935 – Eileen’s Ninety Eighty Four

South Shields-born Eileen O’Shaughnessy writes a poem to celebrate her school’s fiftieth anniversary (Sunderland Church High School). Focusing on mind control in a police state, she entitles it End of the Century 1984. She will later marry the novelist, George Orwell, whose famed novel 1984, (published 1949) has a similar theme.

Eileen Blair

Nov 14, 1935 – Ex-PM loses Seaham seat

In June, Labour’s Seaham MP, and National Government coalition leader, Ramsay MacDonald stepped down as Prime Minister due to ill health and was succeeded by Stanley Baldwin, a Conservative. Baldwin holds a general election today and the National Government, now under his leadership, are once again winners. MacDonald, again standing as a ‘National’ Labour candidate at Seaham is ousted as Seaham MP by Emanuel Shinwell (known as Mannie Shinwell) who stood as a rival Labour candidate. Throughout the country, a number of Labour and Liberal party members successfully stood against the National candidates (who are perceived as dominated by the Conservatives).

Blast Beach on the Durham coast south of Seaham
The coast at Seaham © David Simpson

1935 – Ellen Wilkinson MP

In the general election the Conservative MP for Jarrow was ousted by Labour’s Manchester-born Ellen Wilkinson, formerly the MP for Middlesbrough.

Ellen Wilkinson

Jan 1936 – EDWARD VIII : Kingship crisis

King George V dies at home at Sandringham and is succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII. However, the yet-to-be-crowned king’s plan to marry American Mrs Wallis Simpson creates a constitutional crisis because not only is she a ‘commoner’ but she is already married and for the second time too, having divorced her first husband.

1936 – Sunderland Champions

Sunderland, who finished second to Arsenal last season become champions in the highest tier of English football for the sixth time in their history, claiming the First Division title under their Scottish-born manager Johnny Cochrane. Middlesbrough finish fourteenth in the division while Newcastle United finish eighth in the Second Division. The goal scoring talents of local Wearside lads Bobby Gurney and Raich Carter contribute considerably to Sunderland’s title gain, although the division’s top scorer that season is West Bromwich Albion’s William ‘Ginger’ Richardson who was born at Framwellgate Moor, Durham.

Sunderland ‘s Bobby Gurney

Oct 5-31, 1936  – Jarrow March

Two hundred unemployed men march 274 miles from Jarrow to London in protest about the recession that followed the recent closure of the town’s Palmer’s shipyard. Around 80 per cent of Jarrow’s workforce were employed at this yard. The route of the march took in 21 stops, including Chester-Street, Ferryhill, Darlington, Northallerton, Leeds, Barnsley, Leicester, Northampton and St Albans. At Leicester local bootmakers worked through the night to repair the marchers’ shoes. Jarrow MP, Ellen Wilkinson joined the marchers for some sections of the journey. A meeting was held in London’s Hyde Park and Wilkinson presented a box containing 11,000 signatures to parliament. The men, sadly, returned home having achieved little but a lasting place in the social history of the region and the hearts and minds of the people.

River Don and Tyne at Jarrow
River Don and Tyne at Jarrow © David Simpson

1936 – TVTE established

The Team Valley Trading Estate is established to encourage light industries in the region. It is recognition of the dangers of relying too heavily upon a small number of manufacturing industries which employ many people. The region had been designated a Special Area in the Special Areas Act of 1934.

1936 – Colliery closures

West Stanley Colliery, the scene of a tragic disaster in 1909 when 168 lives were lost, closes in March of this year. Other collieries closing in 1936 include Newfield near Chester-le-Street and Bishop Middleham near Ferryhill.

1937 – Scandinavian ferry

A regular ferry service commences from the mouth of the Tyne to Bergen and Oslo in Norway.

May 1, 1937 – Sunderland win FA Cup

Sunderland Football Club managed by Scotsman Johnny Cochrane, win the FA Cup for the first time in their history in only their second appearance in the final. They defeat Preston North End 3-1 at Wembley. Preston had taken the lead just before half time but second half goals came from Sunderland-born lads Bobby Gurney and Raich Carter, who are both noted as prolific goal scorers. Sunderland’s third goal came from Yorkshireman, Eddie Burbanks near the end of the game.

Sunderland’s Raich Carter

May 12, 1937 – KING GEORGE VI

George VI is crowned at Westminster Abbey. In December last year his elder brother King Edward VIII – who was never crowned – abdicated because of his intention to marry American Mrs Wallis Simpson.

1936 – Colliery closures

Low Bitchburn Colliery near Crook and Shildon Lodge Colliery closed this year.

1937 – Colleges merge

Newcastle’s Armstrong College merges with the School of Medicine in the city (Durham College of Medicine) to form King’s College, the Newcastle-based division of the University of Durham. The Medical School will abandon their home in Northumberland Road (the Sutherland Building) and relocate to a new site near the Armstrong College opposite the Royal Victoria Infirmary. Durham University is now recognised as a university with two divisions centred on Durham and Newcastle.

1937 – Cinema boom

Many cinemas are built in the region in the late 20s and 1930s, including three at Darlington, four at Gateshead, five in Sunderland and 15 in Newcastle. By 1939, Darlington has more cinema seats per head of population than any other town in Britain.

Old Launderette, former cinema, Durham
The Old Cinema Launderette, Gilesgate Moor on the outskirts of Durham City is a former cinema that is now a launderette and music venue. This cinema opened in 1927 and operated until 1958. It was later the home to a bingo hall and a tool hire business © David Simpson

1938 – Colliery closures

There were colliery closures this year at Browney; Catchgate; Middridge Grange; Pontop Pike; Quarry Deep (Cockfield); Twizell (Grange Villa) and West Cramlington.

👈 1901-19191939-1949 👉

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