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Roman Conquest 43AD-71AD

Man's presence in the North dates from around 5,000BC. When the Romans arrived, they found that Britain was a land of tribes and hill forts. The North-East was part of the territory of the Brigantes, a tribe led by a woman called Cartimandua.

43AD ROMANS INVADE (England)

An enormous army of 40,000 Roman troops led by Claudius (below) has landed at Richborough in Kent. British resistance has been heavily crushed and Caractacus, a British resistance leader, has fled north.

46AD NORTHERN TRIBE ARE ROMAN CLIENTS (North)

The Brigantes, a huge tribe whose territory stretches from the Pennines of southern Yorkshire to north of the Tyne, are recognised as a client kingdom of the Romans they have not been conquered by the Romans but, hoping to be left in peace, accept the invaders as their rulers. The Brigantes queen is Cartimandua. Female leaders are quite acceptable to these war-like Britons. Their language resembles Welsh and is yet to be influenced by the Latin speech of the Romans.

50AD STANWICK A STRONGHOLD (Stanwick near Darlington)

The principal fort of the Brigantes is Stanwick St John, a few miles south of the River Tees. Other Brigantian forts are found throughout the North, particularly in the Pennines and include Ingleborough Hill and Almondbury near Huddersfield.

51AD QUEEN BETRAYS CARACTACUS (North Yorks)

Tribal support for Venutius, the husband of the Brigantian queen Cartimandua, is growing after the queen betrayed the popular British rebel Caractacus and revealed his whereabouts to the Romans.

51AD REBEL SET FREE IN ROME (Rome)

Caractacus, the leader of British resistance, has been paraded in chains through Rome where his tough-minded defiance impressed the Roman emperor. The emperor has released Caractacus from captivity and allowed him to live freely in Rome.

51AD QUEEN DIVORCES (North Yorks)

Cartimandua has divorced Venutius and is planning to marry her new lover Vellocatus who had been the armour-bearer of her husband. Civil war has broken out between the supporters of Cartimandua who are backed by the Romans and Venutius.

56AD ROMANS END NORTHERN WAR (North Yorks)

The Romans sent a legion into the north to successfully end the rebellion of Venutius, husband of Cartimandua.

69AD QUEEN FORCED OUT (Stanwick, North Yorks)

Venutius causes the Brigantes to rise up against his former wife Cartimandua who has been unpopular since the capture of the British hero, Caractacus. She is forced to leave the north and the Romans rescue her from her angry tribesmen. Venutius becomes the leader of the Brigantes

71AD BATTLE OF SCOTCH CORNER (North Yorks)

After a whole series of great battles across the North Venutius' Brigantes are finally defeated in battle somewhere near Scotch Corner. The Roman leader Petillius Cerealis starts building a series of forts across Brigantia to prevent further encounters and a legion has been stationed at York in a fortress built of earth and timber. Other new forts include one at Piercebridge defending a crossing of the River Tees. It lies close to the heartland of the Brigantes' territory.

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